Saturday, August 31, 2019
Memorandums are a versatile form of business communication. They can range from inform, such as the University of Phoenix Material: Accounting Memo, to the formal; which would be the reply memo that would be sent to the Vice President. The degree of their formality can vary widely, so in writing the reply the sender much pay close attention to various types of information he/she should omit/include, the type of jargon used, and any potential repercussions in failing to know his/her audience. Corrections.There are various corrections that need to be made throughout the memorandum. To include the following in the Heading: Ã¢â¬ ¢To: Mr. /Mrs. Smith, V. P. Ã¢â¬ ¢From: Andrew Jones (He would also include his initials) Ã¢â¬ ¢Department: Accounting (Being his senior officer the Vice President may not know who Andrew Jones is) Ã¢â¬ ¢CC: Joe Accountant (Include the the partner he was working on the project with) Ã¢â¬ ¢Date: January 28, 2013 The Subject line would also not be included in the heading, but several spaces down from the heading.Where the original sender included a greeting of Ã¢â¬Å"TEAM-MATEÃ¢â¬ should be omitted because it is unnecessary and out of place. This is the type of greeting that should be included in an email or letter. This is where the subject line should be included. To read: Ã¢â¬ ¢Subject: Last In/First Out Vs. First in/First Out Inventory Review Jargon. The sender needs to be careful of his/her use of accounting specific terms such as LIFO, FIFO, COGS, and P&L Statements because they are everyday terms used by accountant, this can create confusion if the recipient does not know the term.An easy solution would be to define the word or spell it the first time then proceed with acronyms proceeding. Repercussions. The repercussions that a person may face when failing to know ones audience is that you run the risk of writing the wrong type of message formal when informal should be used, or informal when formal should be used. This could lead from something as little as embarrassment to reprimand.Other possible scenarios are that your message is misunderstood and not convey because your audience did not understand the meaning of what you were saying. Conclusion. Memos can be a simple message to another co-worker, or a formal message to the Vice President of the company, but as long as you know how to address your audience, be careful of the word choice, and know what information is important for your audience; you should be able to write a clear, concise memorandum.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Christian dogmas have always been intertwined with philosophy regardless of the fact that most of the time both philosophers and theologians had polar opinions associated with religion and philosophy respectively. The first mentioning of philosophy in the Bible was encountered in the New Testament: See to it that no one makes a prey of you by philosophy and empty deceit, according to human tradition, according to the elemental spirits of the universe, and not according to Christ. (Colossians 2:8) Nevertheless, one of the earliest Christian representatives Tertullian always disagreed with the combination of ordinary temporal philosophical views and spiritual exalted religious dogmas. To the contrary, another religious thinker St. Augustine of Hippo defended the idea of inter-complementation of abstract science and Christian faith only in case of their mutual compatibility. St. Thomas Aquinas made great contribution to the ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on philosophy, as he was the first to distinguish these two important sectors of human perception of surrounding environment. He claimed that o Owing to philosophy information is being received through basic sensory functions: smell, touch, vision, hearing, and taste. Also, it is possible to prove and check the data according to laws of physics initially based on philosophy as well. o Owing to Christianity, information is not something to be proved or argued. It is to be accepted axiomatically especially when it is closely connected with God and Divine. After the Middle Ages the double nature of Jesus Christ (divine and human) was put in doubt and required explicit evidence regarding the origin and function of God. Philosophy could not succeed in answering this question, as the notions of humanity and divinity do not logically coincide with each other. Therefore, certain attempts were made with the help of Christianity to resolve the issue of imbalance. Thus, we need to mention three major reasons why philosophy was isolated from Christianity. ? First of all, philosophers from English-speaking world were predominantly atheists and rejected all spiritual and divine aspects of human activity. They required strong logical evidence and proof for subjects of their investigation and discussion ? Secondly, rejecting Christian dogmas philosophers were constantly seeking alternative ways to find proof for their arguments and new methods and evidences hidden in other religions.? Thirdly, philosophers believed that the language of religion and theology is too incoherent, irrational, and inconsistent that the meaning, no matter how important or of current importance it may be, loses its significance. Philosophical issues that have become Christianized include: ? Trinity: it was no clear for many thinkers why God consisted of three persons: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. In the 7th century the Council of Toledo announced: Ã¢â¬Å"we may say God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit; but they are not three Gods, he is one GodÃ¢â¬ . Similar to how a solar system may consist of numerous cosmic bodies. ? Sacrifice and atonement: philosophers believed that one punishment is enough to give birth to another, which is not always fair. However, Christianity responded by proving that punishment has moral nature and it is not something that exceptionally deals with evil. In conclusion, we may add that Christianity had a great impact on philosophy since early times. References Moore, N. B. , & Bruder, K. (2004). Philosophy: The Power of Ideas. 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Applying Risk Management - Essay Example ress the concerns arising out of providing organization data and access on an organizational website, allowing mobile access to organizational system users, and using cloud resources such as processing and data storage outside the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s physical locations. The Huffman Trucking maintains a simple official website to provide visitors with basic understanding of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and to manage its business affairs. Considering the dreadful consequences of current threats existing in the online virtual world, the organization must be extremely cautious about providing organizational data on its website and allowing visitors to access the data. While assessing the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s official website, it seems that the organization encourages its customers to create a Trucking Customer account. Although it is an improved facility to provide customers with a better shopping experience and great convenience, the company must ensure that proper security features are added to the customer login system to prevent unauthorized access to customer accounts. In addition, the organization must thoughtfully determine what kind of organization data should be posted on its website, and what should not. When sensitive organization data is posted on the website, it is likely to be misused by market rivalries or other computer hackers. To be more specific, the company should not provide any organization data on its website that might threaten the competitiveness of the business. Referring to Hussey (2010), the organization must periodically update its website so as to keep the site secure from external threats and to deliver quality services to clients (p.na). For a large organization like Huffman Trucking, it is vital to allow mobile access to organizational system users in order to improve the supply chain efficiency of the firm. More precisely, the organizational system users such as employees, contractors, and business partners must be allowed to easily access necessary
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Four Centuries of Guitar Masterpiece by Robert Wetzel - Essay Example This was punctuated by some breaks. The concert was conspicuously characterized by the use of the classical guitar. The classical guitar is different from the ordinary guitar in terms of the sound it produces, its weight, size, and material used in making it. The guitars used had six nylon strings, as used in the making f nylon and acoustic guitars. The family of classical guitar that was used was flamenco guitar. It is worth noting that this name is derivative of the modern classical, but what sets them apart are the materials that are employed in making them. The strings are plucked to produce sound and this comes with the advantage that different sounds could be produced by plucking at different positions, as well as in different ways (Julian 34). The guitar player was characterized by alternation. This was arguably purposed at achieving the effect of tremolo, as well as fluent scales of passages. Alternation is whereby the guitar player is restricted from plucking a single string using one finger within one row. The presentation of Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757), which included Tombeau sur la Mort de and Cajetan dÃ¢â¬â¢Hartig is what could never have gone unnoticed. The presentation was a depiction of a sonata that assumed a single movement, which was in a binary form. Furthermore, it appears the presentation was written either in the pianofortes and harpsichord. The presented gave one the opportunity to have an experience of the harmonic audacity, as far as the use of the discords, as well as the unusual remote key modulations is concerned. There are other distinctive features of the Scarlatti style and these included the influences of the Spanish and the Iberian music styles. What could also be discerned from the Scarlatti's presentation are the dissonances and figurations are suggestive of guitar forms.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Epidemiology According to John Snow and William Farr - Research Paper Example When the second cholera pandemic broke out and reached London in 1832, a number of theories on the causation of such catastrophic spate were proposed, including miasma or Ã¢â¬Å"bad airÃ¢â¬ and changes in environmental conditions (Morabia, 2001, 150th Anniversary, 2004). However, John Snow, who was a respected medical practitioner specializing in anesthesia and respiratory physiology, questioned the correctness of those theories. He observed that the symptoms were intestinal in nature, abdominal pain is one of the first complaints of the afflicted, accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration (Eyler, 2001). At the same time, treatments that acted specifically in the digestive tract seemed to alleviate early symptoms. From these observations, he proposed that cholera could not be a blood or respiratory infection but an infection of the gut. Snow proposed that the main proponent of transmission was not the soil, nor climate change or miasma as originally suggested, but the ing estion of water contaminated with fecal matter. But this did not convince the medical community. Without definitive data, SnowÃ¢â¬â¢s analogy was not good enough. In 1854, another wave of cholera plagued the Soho district yet again. This time, Snow suspected that an infected water pump located in Broad Street brought upon the outbreak. Following his earlier proposal that the cholera infection was from the ingestion of contaminated water and bearing a record of death from Cholera from the General Register Office, he traced the deaths attributed to cholera within the vicinity and found that they drank water from a common water pump in Broad Street. Snow elucidated this by plotting a Cholera spot map showing the areas collectively affected by the epidemic, as well as its proximity to the specific pump in question.Ã
Monday, August 26, 2019
Exam 4 chapter - Essay Example In contrast only the broad outline is provided within which a variety of course content could be accommodated. The teachers play the role of a mentor to students. Instead of spoon-feeding all concepts and course content they give a fair degree of liberty for students to find their own individualized style of learning. They prompt students to find equilibrium in the interaction between the organism and the environment. There is no standardized evaluation of learning. Moreover, the process involves experimentation and learning through experience rather through concepts. Pragmatism also rejects Metaphysical Absolutes and Metaphysical Dualisms. Pragmatism is a relevant philosophy of schooling even today. The prevalent system of education does not mould students into well-rounded and socially-conscious individuals. The emphasis is too much on grades and individual excellence. Being part of the current education system I can clearly see what Pragmatism offers. Under Pragmatist education student co-operation is given more importance compared to student competition. This is not the case in the current system where there is severe competition to get good grades. Perhaps, the current system can be modified to include educational goals and methods outlined under Pragmatism. This chapter is useful reference for students and educators alike. Just as students are exposed a system of education quite different to theirs, it also helps educators to rethink the objectives of curriculum and methods employed to achieve the same. The lack of standard grading system can be problematic for contemporary educators. The ability of a student to handle ad hoc problems as posed by the teacher is loosely evaluated for learning outcomes. It is this aspect of Pragmatism which makes it incompatible with the present mindset of teachers and parents. Today teachers and parents want students to excel in tests, irrespective of understanding how it translates into social and
Sunday, August 25, 2019
A critical perspective on branding, concerned with issues in practical application of branding practices - Essay Example Lury (2004) also adds that employees form a core part of brand promotion in any company; large businesses use employees as mediums to promote their brands not only to external potential customers but also to the existing and potential internal customers. A reflective analysis on the impact of branding on employees and organizations has been undertaken in the present context. Working with a large and influential brand is usually regarded as an example of prestige and privilege. One such brand is the HSBC bank that will be studied for its efforts to enhance brand image in this analysis. Drawing points from Dr. BrannanÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings from the theme titled, Ã¢â¬ËBranding: Being 'you' inside and outside the organisation,Ã¢â¬â¢ likeliness of impact of branding on employees will be assessed against literature propositions. This analysis will specifically focus on Warhurst and NicksonÃ¢â¬â¢s (2009) perspective of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ position in branding efforts, which is a mere objec t of brand personification in order to please customers and stakeholders. In this process, an attempt will be made to understand how branding impacts employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ place and meaning in organizations by relating to personal experiences. Important findings from literature will be evaluated along with identification of some critical reviews of management specialists. These evaluations will be helpful in explaining practical positions held by individuals in organizations with respect to brand promotions based on personal experiences. Important conclusions will be subsequently highlighted. 2. Working at HSBC: About HSBC: HSBC Bank is multinational bank setup in more than 80 countries and has over 7200 offices with more than 287,000 employees. HSBC bank provides the widest range of financial services to over 89 million customers across the globe. Its services are in retail banking, personal financial services, commercial banking and markets, and global private banking (HSBC history, n .d). Working as a back-office executive at HSBC bank is perceived as a prestigious position owing to its brand value besides its size and strength. This brand is considered as one of the greatest success stories in modern marketing, according to the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s website. HSBC was ranked number one financial services in 2011 in one of the surveys and its brand value is estimated to be worth $ 27.1 (Advertising, 2012). The HSBC brand: Globally, all HSBC offices and businesses follow certain common practices, which, they believe, reinforce their brand. One such practice that reinforces brand image and corporate reputation through certain regulations is its Ã¢â¬Ëcore standards of behaviour,Ã¢â¬â¢ based on integrity, trust and excellent customer service; these standards facilitate building HSBCÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation, keeping different units united, in making them unique and earning them the competitive edge in the market. These core standards define certain behavioural components for all employees towards active listening, understanding, freedom to deliver, integrity, straightforwardness, forward thinking, and teamwork (Employee Handbook, 2008). Like many other far-fledged businesses and corporate sector firms, HSBCÃ¢â¬â¢s brand image is emphasized in almost every aspect that is visible to its internal and external customers. Its brand image also reflects in its choice of aesthetics in terms of interiors, logo design and color as well as in its rules for employee etiquettes. For instance, its slogan, Ã¢â¬ËThe WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Local Bank,Ã¢â¬â¢ actually depicts HSBCÃ¢â¬â¢s mission of making its presence felt in every country and region by offering diverse and customized
Saturday, August 24, 2019
In Egypt did the Arab Spring change gender roles and notions of where women belonged in society Were women in Egypt better off before or after the Arab Spring - Essay Example WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in Islam-dominated nations have long been stifled by conventional Islamic culture which believes men should be in charge of women hence the press for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights was a welcomed result of the Arab Spring revolts all through the Middle East and North Africa in ultra-traditional and Islam-dominated Egypt. From the protests, women hoped to gain from the altering relations of authority in society. That of course is a course that takes an extended amount of time to address (Ramdani 20-21) As the freethinking sought very much to drive forward for additional evident and more active roles for the female gender, some Islamist groups were not as keen about the notion of stirring in that path. It is without a doubt, there were unlike expectations on the roles played by women were to change due to the Arab Spring. In the present day, Egypt, the conventional patriarchal society is slowly fading without much of the democratic spirit of the Arab Spring. In its place, the thousands of females who contributed greatly to the fall of President Hosni Mubarak are now marginalized, if not ignored. Egypt has swapped a western-based, secular autocracy with an Islamic version, but for most the spot on headline figure was the trivial 12 seats for the female gender out of the possible 498. This translates into a 2.4% representation of women compared to the already low UN world average of 19%. All the 13 presidential race candidates were men (Ramdani 23-24) Women have, in general, been left out before and after the Arab Spring. In Egypt, it has been seen that the rights of women are all the time more under attack and violence against them on the rise. Women are to a less extent been involved in political parties and play an even smaller part in elections. The gap between women and men voting in Egypt has declined following the uprising. Currently, there are new worrying measures
Employment Law - Essay Example employees, while the employer should follow the conditions of the plan in providing those benefits in a way that is both consistent, as well as nondiscriminatory (Duddington 7). The principle of employment-at-will is a variety of federal, as well as state laws prohibiting discrimination based on race, age, gender, disability, or national origin. According to the Federal law, Civil Rights Act Title Vii, if an employee assumes that he or she gets a termination, demotion, or denial of promotion due to unlawful discrimination, he or she has to report a complaint within 180 days. Failure of filing a discrimination claim in the time limit bars the claim; this claim undergoes investigation and if the claim turns to be having merit, it will try to resolve it through conciliation or litigation. However, if there is no discrimination found, or the claim cannot be resolved thereby leading to dropping of the claim, which is normally the case, there is the suing of Ã¢â¬Å"a right-to-sue letter"; following the issuance of the letter of right-to-sue letter, the employee has the ability of taking his or her claim of discrimination up to Federal court (Duddington 22). In Title Vii of the Federal law, the employee must file his or her lawsuit in ninety days after obtaining a right-to-sue letter or, again, the claim gets barred. In the case o f Ms. Clark, it is clear that the motivation behind her termination was the fact that was a woman, as well as being the age of fifty three. The management of the company was biased when the termination of Ms. Clark, first they asserted that she made poor judgment about accepting the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s representativeÃ¢â¬â¢s invitation. This was ridiculous considering that she had worked for Danskin Inc. for over twenty years plus the fact that she was the Vice chairman of the company hence she knew exactly what was appropriate for the company. Apart from that, had a perception that Ms. Clark was exceedingly old and incapable of getting another job, as a result,
Friday, August 23, 2019
Course of Conduct - Essay Example an who acts voluntarily does so at his own peril and is liable for the consequences of the actions voluntarily undertaken, whether intended or as a result of failure to obey the duty of care he owes to other parties. Using the cases of Lynch v. Fisher and Palsgraf v. Long Island Rail Road, the paper also investigates which of the two theories is more compelling. Contrary to the view advanced by the criminalist theory by Austin, the mental anticipation of risk must never be required as an element for the imputation of the tort liability. This is because such a legal dimension would permit the incorporation of several unjustified assumptions. These assumptions would more often than not lead to high level miscarriage of justice. Ã¢â¬Å"It might be assumed that trespass is founded on the defendant having caused damage by his act without regard to negligenceÃ¢â¬ (Lynch v. Fisher 2). Secondly, it is very difficult for the jury to determine with certainty, the mental intentions of the act, which was done sometime in the past and damages incurred by another party. Oliver Wendell Holmes points that every man assumes the risk of his acts, be it the consequences are intended, or not, since the acts are voluntary, as demonstrated in the case of Lynch v. Fisher. In ordering, the restatement of the Law of tortÃ¢â¬â¢s section 435, the Louisiana appellate court upheld an earlier ruling in which the defendant, Gunter was charged with and convicted for negligence that resulted in physical injury of the plaintiff. This was done on three major grounds; the claim that the defendant was delirious at the time he shot the plaintiff and that he was out of his mind and suffering from temporary derangement of intellect, was rejected on the grounds that because of the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s own negligence, he temporarily lost his power to reason. Additionally, all the rescue efforts had been made and that the actions by the plaintiff were just before the shooting, given that he was giving comfort to the
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Night Hoops Essay Fellow Word Shakers, When I started reading the book, Night Hoops by Carl Deuker, I was very bored. I felt like I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t relating to the characters and the plot was moving too slowly. I questioned whether I should start a new book; however, I persevered just like Nick, and I am very grateful that I stuck with it. After reading Night Hoops, I have developed a new mindset on how I should pursue my goals no matter what impediments obstruct my ability to reach them. Nick, the protagonist, always dreamt of earning his spot on his high schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s varsity basketball team, but his road to the team was filled with family troubles; being overshadowed by his older brother, Scott; and run-ins with Trent, the local bully. However, Nick persevered through it all and accomplished his goal of making the varsity basketball team. Over the past few years, I have been extremely dedicated to becoming the best golfer I can be. However recently, I have lost my enthusiasm for the game. Because of this, I feel like I can relate to Nick and although he is a fictional character, use him as inspiration to rededicate myself to the game of golf. Aside from my fascination with NickÃ¢â¬â¢s perseverance and dedication, I was intrigued by the friendship that developed between Nick and Trent, the local bully. At first, Trent and Nick didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get along. In fact, Trent beat Nick up. However, as Deuker took us through their relationship we saw how they soon became good friends who were connected through the game of basketball. From this, I realized that some of the people best fit for you could be right under your nose, but they put up a facade to support their tough guy image so you donÃ¢â¬â¢t get a chance to get to know who they truly are. Another aspect of the book that really captured my attention was how NickÃ¢â¬â¢s father applied pressure on him to succeed in basketball. At first, this pressure really inhibited NickÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to play good basketball. However, as he became used to the pressure and used it as motivation, Nick became the player both he and his dad always wanted him to be. This brings up the dilemma that a lot of parents struggle with today. Should they push their kids to succeed or should they let their kids succeed on their own? There is no right or wrong answer to this question, but I think it is fascinating that Deuker poses this question in a book written for teens. More than just my experience with the different characters, I loved DeukerÃ¢â¬â¢s very tangible description of the basketball games: Ã¢â¬Å"He caught it in stride, soared upward in the same fluid motion, and gently laid the ball against the backboard. It dropped through the net just as the horn sounded. A tenth of a second later we were jumping all over himÃ¢â¬ (167). I felt like I was at the game, sitting on the edge of my seat praying that the ball falls through the net, and jumping into the air screaming in joy when it does. Although I loved his poetic descriptions of the basketball games, I felt like too often he used very basic, simple language. Every book has its flaws, but if you are into basketball, like a story about perseverance, or want to be taken through a great friendship then this book is definitely for you. I hope that you enjoy this book as much as I did. Yours Truly,
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Importance Factors in Crime Scene Preservation According to the lecture on crime scene management the process of crime scene management is as follows. The different role players within the SAPS respond to the crime scene with due consideration personal safety, while at same time looking for potential evidence and possible suspects. The researcher wants to determine whether the role players from the components such as the visible policing, detectives and the Local Criminal Record Centre attended the murder crime scenes with the purpose of obtaining the required evidential material for linking suspects with the crime scene and for court purposes, further to determine whether such role players has the expertise to identify possible suspects at the murder scenes, SAPS (2006). In terms of SAPS, DCLP (2006) and SAPS Policy Number 1 (2004) on crime scene management, the procedure in the crime scene of crime is as follows: The first member to arrive at the crime scene will receive the crime scene from the members of the public and immediately take control of the scene and identify the injured victims. The first member will establish the command centre and act as Acting Commander for the Centre until the Official Commander is appointed. The Acting Commander will administers all the resources as required by the crime scene role-players examples of such resources are visible policing, Specialized units, Emergency services, Defence Force units etc and if the scope of the crime scene escalates (i.e) incident where public order policing or the task force is required, a major aircraft crash or any major operation), the command centre will further supported by the establishment of a field joint operational centre. The establish excess routes to the crime scene for control purpose. The first member will hand over the crime scene to the appointed crime scene manager on arrival who will be accompanied by the detectives and the crime scene technician and conduct a detail inspection to determine certain key aspects of the crime scene. The crime scene manager, the crime scene technician and the investigating officer will gain on the first walk through plan and agree on the crime scene investigation, processing strategy and methodology which they will follow. The crime scene manager will appoints the investigating officer who will be the principal investigator and be responsible for the maintaining of the case docket, investigating officer to co-ordinates the investigating team and for the maintaining the investigation diary and keeping track of the whole process and the investigating team is responsible for information gathering and proceeds which the interviewing of witnesses and taking down statements (SAPS 2006). The crime manager will also appoints the crime scene technician who will be the principal processing expert on the crime scene and evaluates the evidence possibilities and assembles the processing team with the correct skills to effectively process the crime scene. Crime scene technician will be supported by specialists available to assist the processing team on the crime; such specialists are provided by the Forensic Science Laboratory, Pathology, etc. The processing team will prepare a realistic visual representation of the scene to a court of law (SAPS 2006). After the crime scene team has completed their activities in the crime scene, the crime scene manager will conducts a final walk through of the scene, accompanied by the investigating officer and the crime scene technician. The purpose of walk-through is to review the activity of the investigation and processing team, ensuring that the original plan has been executed. The crime scene manager will conduct a debriefing with all role players as the last opportunity to collect any wrong decision made during the process and to ensure that all required actions have been performed. The crime scene manager will restore the crime scene and ensuring that all equipments has been removed and authorised the crime scene to be released to the public (SAPS 2006). Sometime after the event the crime scene manager calls a meeting with all the relevant role players to evaluate the process for lessons learnt planning the on going investigation, commenced on successes and identify mistakes. Cox (2009) in her article, explains that in order to ensure that the evidence is protected, the first person at the crime scene should secure it with barriers and or crime scene tapes soon after arriving at the crime scene, in addition, some should act as security guard so that people who do not belong at the location are kept out of the crime scene. According to Lee, Palmbach Miller, (2001), the first responders to a crime scene are usually Police, Emergency Medical personnel or Fire Department personnel. Their actions at the scene are often the foundation for the successful resolution of the crime. These first responding Officers are also in many cases some of the individuals, who may, through the course of doing their job, inadvertently change or alter the crime scene from its original condition, Lee, et al (2001). They further emphasized that those persons must do their job but they must always keep in mind that they will begin the process of linking the crime scene to the victim, the witness and ultimately, to the suspect. Any disruption of the crime scene may prevent the link to the suspect. The critical matters such as training, education, experience are all necessary for any potential first responder Lee et al, (2001). The process to be followed according to Roland (2007) correspond with (SAPS 2006) in the sense that the first Officers to respond are responsible for the securing the crime scene and preserving it as they found it. This means ensuring that nothing is touched or moved so that any physical evidence is not compromised or contaminated, if there are victims displaying signs of life the Police will call a team of Paramedics to give on site assistance if they did not respond to the initial emergency call. The injured can then be removed to Hospital, but dead bodies need to be left as they were found since vital causes can be obtained from studying the position and condition of the victim. The senior investigating officer will begin by interviewing the officers who were first on the scene to get their initial impression of the location and the behaviour of those who were directly involved. In a murder enquiry the suspects residence will require searching as well as the site where the body of the victim has been discovered. Team is led by a crime scene controller who answers to a superior the superior then reports to the investigating officer. When the crime scene is a house, an apartment, commercial building or vehicle all which can be sealed off and examined in the minutes detail and if murder or violent attack has occurred in one area of a building . The whole property will be considered relevant to the case and will be scoured for clause. When exterior location Police may have to extend the perimeter to includes vehicle tyre tracks, footprints and areas where there is a change of finding personal items, discarded cigarettes butts, a weapon or trace evidence which might have been snagged on undergrowth. It is a burial site for murder victims. There could be other makeshift graves in the area all in which will save to be excavates, photographed and combined for physical evidence. Exterior scene may also have to be isolated by a tent to protect evidence from the effects of whether and to exclude the prying eyes of curiosity seekers and media Roland (2007). It is clear that the procedure for the first person to arrive at the scene of crime is to ensure that the crime is protected for potential evidence. Cox(2009), Lee, el at 2001) and Roland (2007) support the (SAPS1 (2004) on crime scene management as well as the SAPS DCLP (2006). Wayne, Patherick, Brent, Turvey, Claire Ferguson (2010) indicates that particular attention should be given to determine if this is the only scene or whether there are secondary crime scenes that need to be located. Investigators will have only a limited amount of time to work a crime site in its untouched state. The opportunity to permanently record the scene in its original state must not be lost, such records will not only be useful during an investigation but are also required for presentation at trial Wayne et al (2010). Wayne et al (2010) has also stated that it is important that upon arrival at the scene investigators implement crime scene procedures, supervise uniform personnel and provide direction to the investigation to facilitate this. An investigative team should be nominated. This team should consist of an arresting officer, a corroborating officer, and an exhibit officer. This procedure is standard in most Police services for any major crime. The exhibits officer is responsible for protection and collection of exhibits, through to the examination of exhibits and their final production in court cases. The arresting officer and the corroborating officer are responsible for interaction with suspects and have final responsibility prosecuting the matter to trial. This team should be overseen by a senior Detective who has a broad management role in ensuring that a major incident room (MIR) or command post is established to support and manage investigative functions at the crime scene and also at later stages of the investigations Wayne et al (2010). Furthermore Wayne et at (2010) elaborates the initial assessment stage of crime scene that the trained investigators should have control of the investigation and begin to identify possible witnesses and suspects they should begin this stage by evaluating physical evidence located with a view to assisting with suspect generation by prioritising the most evidence (e.g) DNA located at a scene is powerful evidence as compared to an un-identified item such as clothing). It is also at this point that the investigators should familiarise themselves with the victim by performing interviews with the victim if still alive, or alternatively by conducting a victim logy (or profile) if the victim is the deceased. The profile should include the history of the victim, associates, criminal links, family and financial records. This step is important because the characteristics of a victim can provide links to possible suspects in particular, investigators may be able to draw inferences about the offe nders motive, modus operandi, and signatures behaviour (Turvey, 1999). Having done this, the investigators should be able to know the information about the victim. Wayne et al (2010). According to Wayne et al (2010) during the investigation stage the investigators undertake the most challenging work. At this point investigators must attempt to establish a motive for the crime, if this can be done, it must be accurate, then this information will greatly assist in reducing the suspect pool. Witness account also need to be closely examined at this stage and evaluated as to the assistance they can build a profile for the suspect. In this stage investigators should be ensuring that trained experts are evaluating all available physical evidence. Wayne et al (2010) further explain about the target stage of having carried out thorough examination of the crime scene, investigators need to build a profile for potential suspects from evidence available during the target stage. The investigators should then test the velocity of the evidence by seeking links between the suspect and the crime. All available evidence needs to be channelled into providing a nexus between the susp ect and the victim, in relation to time, place and motive. It is at this point the investigators need to be fully conversant with the investigations gathered by investigators with regards to build a profile for potential suspects. The investigators should develop an investigative interview plan so that when the suspect is confronted, the investigators are clear of the direction and purpose of the action or questioning that they undertake in the arrest stage, Wayne (et al 2010). According to Jackson, Andrew and Jackson, Julie (2004) the duties of the first Police Officer attending and preservation of the crime scene is as follows: Maintain the value of any physical evidence that may be present. Carry out an initial assessment of the scene. Deal with any emergencies (the overriding duty of the first officer attending is to preserve life, irrespective of whether crucial evidence is destroyed in the process). Call for assistance as necessary. Preserve the scene (unless it has been decided that physical evidence will not be recovered. Make an appropriate records of his or her assessment and actions (included in this times at which any key events took place, such as the first officer attending arrival at the scene and any estimated time of the incident that may be available from, for example, eyewitnesses. Communicate his or her assessment and actions to those who will take over the responsibility for the processing of the scene and or those responsible for the investigation of the case. Provide appropriate information about the processing of the case to those members of the public who are directly involved. The fi rst officer attending the crime scene must during his or her initial assessment, ascertain whether any of the following are present or nearby. Injured persons victims. Eyewitnesses (who should be kept separate from one another, by the first officer attending need to avoid conversation between the eye witnesses that could distort their memories of the incident). Suspects (who must be kept separate from each other and from witnesses) it should be borne in mind that seemingly innocent might, in fact be suspects in case. Further Jackson et al (2004) provides that any crime scene from which physical evidence is recovered and recorded, this process is also known as documenting the crime scene. This is done by making written notes that are augmented by photographs, video recordings and or sketches, as appropriate Jackson et al (2004). Jackson et al (2004) also mentioned the following recording on the crime scene. There must be a record of each item of physical evidence recorded from the scene, detailing the identified of the person who recovered it, the time and date at which it was recorded, the exact location from which it was taken and a description of the item involved. A log of all images taken of the scene (whether by still photographing conventional digital or video recording) describing for each images. The exact location of the camera operator The identity of the camera operator The direction in which the camera was pointed. The time and date at which it was captured. Any special lighting or other conditions used. Any special light or other condition used. The items and / or area of the scene from which the image was captured. A log of any sketches made of the scene. A detailed description of the surroundings of the crime scene. A record of the conditions of whether and light that prevailed during the processing of the scene and a thorough description of the crime scene itself in the condition in which it was found prior to the removal of any physical evidence, including details or any features that might be of evidential worth (such as the location and condition of any likely points of the entry and or exits by the individuals involved in the incident). It is clear that on the crime scene the physical evidence needs to be protected for potential evidence. Wayne et al (2010) and Jackson et al (2004:19) support to each other in terms of the process of crime scene management. According to Savino, John, Brent and Turvey (2005) provides the information to be learned from the crime scene as follows: Investigators can experience the sights, smells and sound of the crime scene, as the victim and the offender perceived them. Investigators can experience the spatial relationship with the scene. Investigators can experience how open, or secluded the scene is, suggesting possible witnesses. Investigators can experience how accessible or hidden the scene is to those not from the area, suggesting possible suspect populations. Investigators can learn what kind of traffic (vehicle and pedestrian), residences or businesses are nearby, suggesting possible witnesses and suspect populations. Investigators can experience transfer evidence first hand, vegetation, soil, glass, fibres, and any other material that may have transferred on to the victim or offender may transfer on to them, providing examples of what to look for on suspect clothing or in suspects vehicles. Investigators can walk victim and offender routes themselves, seeing the sight first hand, in order to discover additional witnesses and suspect population. This witnesses can include businesses with active surveillance camera that may have recorded some or all of the crime Savino et al (2005). The attentive investigators may discover items of evidence previously thought lost and according to Savino and Turvey (2005) further elaborate the crime scene dos and donts that, locards exchange principle. Every contact result in a transfer of evidence contact between items in around and obliterate it. The investigator needs to be on the crime scene and have some contact with the evidence, as do Forensic personnel however, reasonable steps can be taken to minimize how much evidence is added, moved and obliterated consider the following guidelines. Do not enter the crime scene until you have signed in on the crime scene security log. If there is not a security log, start one. The security log should contain name, agency, function, time in and out, and clothing description for later exclusionary purposes. One person should be assigned to maintain the log. Make certain that someone is assigned to photograph the crime scene and surrounding areas. Part of this assignment involves maintaining a log of each roll of film and each item and location photograph. Make certain that someone is assigned to sketch the crime scene. A rough sketch should be prepared at the scene showing measurements between items of evidence and spatial relationships within the scene. A final or smooth sketch is prepared later, based on notes, photos, and other information gathered from the scene (Lee). Make certain that someone is assigned to maintain and evidence log. Do not collect multiple items of evidence in one bag or under one evidence number. This provides for potential cross -contamination. Wear disposable latex gloves at all times- this will help prevents the transfer of fingerprints, sweat, and other material from your bare hand on the scene. Change gloves every time you touch a new item on the scene. This will help prevent cross-contamination between items at the same that you have touched. Do not dispose gloves by carelessly discarding them in the scene. They could wind up in the crime scene photo obscuring evidence, or worse, somebody might collect them as evidence and run lab tests to determine their origin. Do not touch everything in sight. When you touch an object, you may move it from its original position or obliterate any evidence that may have been transferred to its surface during the crime, such as a fingerprints or biological fluids containing valuable DNA. Keep your hands in your pockets until they are needed. Do not wonder aimlessly through the crime scene. Do not touch, move or otherwise alter items of evidence before documenting them (photographs, measurements, etc) Do not stage collection effort from furniture involved in the crime. Set up your equipments elsewhere, away from areas of potential evidence transfer. Do not use the telephone on the scene. The offender may have used the phone. This evidence that should be seized and processed for fingerprints and other potential transfer evidence also, phone records should be checked for all incoming and outgoing local and long distance calls, as far back as possible. Do not use the television and / VCR at the scene. The offender may have used them, examine buttons for latent prints. Also, cable TV records should be checked both authors have worked cases where the offender has watched TV and / or ordered pornographic movies while waiting for the victim to return home. Do not use the bathroom. The offender may have the bathroom and may have lifted the toilet seat. The toilet should be seized and processed for fingerprints and other potential transfer evidence. Do not smoke, smoking changes smells of the air and results in hot ashes that have the potential to contaminate, melt, or even burn /ignite potential evidence. It also results in discarded cigarettes butts that may be confused as evidence. Do not eat into the crime scene and dropped food could contaminate or obliterate potential evidence. Do not drink. This is destruction and will results in refuse that could find its way into the crime scene and get more potential collected as evidence, also spilled liquids could contaminate or obliterate potential evidence. Do not spit, spitting result in the transfer of biological material into a crime scene. Do not bring civilians to a crime scene. This kind of thing show a lack of respect and professionalism, as well as introducing more potential transfer evidence into the scene and increasing the possibility that evidence may be carelessly contaminated or obliterated. Do not allow your superiors or colleagues to be civilians to a crime scene. Leave sealed containers sealed. Do not open sealed containers and sniff inside to determine the contents by odour. They may contain hazardours or toxic material such anhydrous ammonia, a necessary ingredient, especially the eye, skin, and respiratory tract will cause dehydration, cell destruction, and serve chemical burns. Do not touch pools of liquid in the crime scene. This is TV and movie behaviour done for dramatic effects to sell a scene, it has no place in real Forensic work. If you do not know what something is you think it is important follow the appropriate documentation and collection procedures and submit it to the LAB for analysis. Do not taste anything at the crime scene. This also TV behaviour done for dramatic effect to sell a scene, it has no place in real Forensic work. Do not interview the victim in the place where the attack occurred. This is extremely insensitive and may erode the trust between the victim and the investigator, to say nothing for potentially re-traumatising the victim. Do not leave the crime scene to get something to eat, play lotto, go back to the office, or work on something else, until you are done. Make written notes of everyone in the crime scene and each persons role. That way youll know whom to call later if you need statement. Take written notes of everything in the crime scene that get your attention because nothing is significant to record if it catches ones attention. Do not lead a victim family members from the crime scene through the area where there attack occurred unless there is no other way. Supervisors in charged of the crime scene with reviewing the work of an investigative unit do well to note those issues during performance reviews. They should also measure to ensure that once this kind of mistakes are discovered, they are not related. This can be accomplished by training and by the example set by seasoned investigators. Ignorance of physical evidence and protocol usually starts at the top, with those in charge and finds its way down through the ranks. Savino et al (2005). It is evident that members who attended the crime scene must follow the information guidelines of Savino et al (2005). According to Van Heerden (1982) the scene of crime can clarify, amongst others the following: The position of the deceased body and of various objects in relation to the body, can for example be important indications of the case of death. This means that whether the death is as results of murder, suicide or accident. The direction from which criminal approached the scene of crime and the manner in which the scene was left. The method used to commit the crime. The identity of the victim. The identity of the offender and the nature of his involvement in the crime. In view of the clarification as alluded by VAN HEERDEN (1982) it is important to illustrate how the potential evidence should be recognized, protected, recorded, collected and packaging, labelled or marked, submission for analysis, maintenance of chain of possession of presentation in court. Marais, Rooyen, Pretorius, De Beer, Smith and Mostert (1992) et al provides that the following legal requirements should be critical importance to the investigator. Before physical evidence can be collected it must obviously be recognized. In a murder investigation one usually concentrates on the weapon or object that was used that caused the death. A search is also made here for blood, hair, fibres and tissue in an effort to connect the criminal with the crime scene. Case and common sense should be always prevail with due precaution not to destroy physical evidence that may exist and the guidelines offered in this regard that the scene should be observed in its entirely and notes made of the location of all obvious physical clues, points of entry and exit signs of location (struggle) and the size and share in the area should be restricted and care taken not to destroy or to disturb any evidence during the examination, a suitable search method must be decided upon and during the search of an indoor scene. Special attention should be paid to fragile evidence that may be easily destroyed or contaminated. Places or objects where latent fingerprints may be found and other physical clues to be examined by the experts later need to be seemed. Comprehensive notes should also be made of all stains, spots, liquids and the like which could prove to have evidential value. The scene and surrounding areas must be demarcated off to ensure that valuable physical evidence is not destroyed or damaged by vehicles people or animals. The three main ways in which evidence is recorded are photographs sketches and written notes by the investigator. The photographs provides a permanent record of the object in the evident that subsequent handling alters or destroy it. An example is where attempts to make a plaster of a footprint ruin the impression or a laboratory examination, destroy the evidence an opportunity for the investigator to review the physical evidence in the case without handling the actual objects and opportunity for the officials of the court to examine evidence which is too dangerous, cumbersome or impressions on a door. Rough sketch of the scene is usually drawn by the investigator for the main purpose to indicate the precise location of people and objects involved. Specific measurements of distances on the area, and the exact location of all relevant evidence. The investigators notes contain the complete records of all evidence collected on the crime scene. Documentation of where and how the evidence was obtained, every items collected should be entered in the notes, the date, time, exact location and circumstances of how each item of evidence was obtained, should be included as well as a full description of it and how the evidence was marked Van Heerden (1982). Collection and packaging of the physical evidence provides that great care must be taken to collect all objects and samples intact, uncontaminated, un-mutilated and it should be borne in mind that to satisfy legal requirements related to its introduction at a judicial proceeding, the investigator must be able to identify each piece of evidence, even years after it was collected, described the location and condition of the item at the time it was collected. Assist in establishing that, from the time of its collection until presentation in court, the evidence was continuously in proper custody and assist in describing any changes which may have occurred in the evidence between the time of collection and the subsequent introduction as evidence in court and the adherence to correct packaging techniques is essential. Faulty packaging can result in contamination, evaporation, scratching, binding, damaging and general loss of physical evidence. Packaging and the packaging material must be o f such quality that evidence do not move about and get damaged during the following process: The investigator should mark each item as soon as possible after discovered. The basic information on the label should include : type of evidence (fibres, hair, metal drillings, soil etc) date and time of day evidence samples were collected, case number, exhibit number or other identifying number and source from which the sample was obtained that is victim s shirt, collar, front doorknob, left headlight or automobile etc. Preservation of the integrity of physical evidence is a continuous responsibility from the time it is discovered until the time it is presented in court or until the final settlement of the case determines its description. Preservation implies maintaining the evidence without altering tampering, contamination, loss or injury, physical evidence. Preservation involves forwarding to the laboratory for examination and analysis, obtaining it from the laboratory and keeping it safe under lock and key where it cannot be tampered with until it is delivered in court. In submission of physical evidence for analysis, only physical evidence that has a bearing on the committed crime should be send to the laboratory. No restriction is placed on the nature and number of samples. The chances of success are usually personally enhanced by the more samples that are received. Physical evidence is usually personally delivered to the laboratory or sent by post or trial. It is sometimes necessary for the c rime investigator to personally deliver physical evidence to the laboratory. In practice the method of delivery is determined by the distance from the laboratory, the seriousness of the case and the size of the physical evidence to mark all exhibits clearly that is the station case number e.g. exhibit A seal all exhibits with legible seal number, the full addresses of the sender and the Forensic Science Laboratory must appear on each parcel and a covering minute in duplicate must accompany each exhibit with the requirement that two(2) covering minutes must accompany each individual parcel Van Heerden (1982). With maintenance of the chain of possession, continuity of possession, that is the continuous safekeeping and identification of physical evidence, is essentially important in the individualisation when the crime investigator fails to properly identify or safe keep samples, that is, objects or items found at the crime scene or in possession f the perpetrator, it lowers the value of laboratory analysis to a minimum. The integrity of physical evidence is often questioned by the defence in court. The correct methods applied during collection, marking and packaging of evidence may nullified if account cannot be given of the persons who handled evaluated or safeguard the samples in order to preserve the integrity of physical evidence to limit the number of individuals who handle the evidence from the time it is found to the time it is presented in court. If the evidence leaves once possession, records in your notes to whom it was given in time and date, the reason for being given to anothe r and when and by whom it was returned, ensure that the persons handling the evidence affix their names, force number and assignment to the package. Obtain a signed receipt from the person accepting the evidence when the evidence in returned, check for your identification
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Remediation of Technology for Media Essay Krishna Cahanoo Remediation project- Zombie Apocalypse- Curtin University In your own words, briefly describe the process of remediating your text I began by selecting and using my favorite hobby which is playing video games. I chose a gameplay and part of Ã¢â¬Å"Last of UsÃ¢â¬ on the PS3 system and as it is a horror game and opted for a creepy music which is Ã¢â¬Å"Sweet DreamsÃ¢â¬ by Marylyn Manson. I used a simple and easy editor which is Ã¢â¬Å"Microsoft Movie MakerÃ¢â¬ to edit the gameplay chosen, creating effects/music and animations. I have an experience over using the editor as IÃ¢â¬â¢m used to create videos and familiar with it. Aster inserting the music file, I added some animations and edited the original voice of the main character (the man) and inserted subtitles to describe his movements and actions. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve encountered some problems while editing and saving the video as it was quite a large Format (Full HD), for a result I had to convert and compress the file into an Mp4 format which really made it easier. Another issue was when creating subtitles I had to choose a visible font and color as the video itself is a dark concept. The biggest challenged I faced was to look for the perfect music, before choosing Ã¢â¬Å"sweet dreamsÃ¢â¬â¢ by Marylyn Manson, I tried with many other, this took time every time I had to insert and edit a music file. This project took me a long time to do and thanks to it IÃ¢â¬â¢ve gained knowledge of copyrights and to further improve my understanding. Finally, I uploaded my remediated work via you tube and also shared it to my Facebook page. In what ways does your remediated text demonstrate an understanding of how remediation impacts on the contemporary media environment? To my understanding innovation and new resources proceeds to the leading role through the concept of remediation. If we consider my own remediated work that I made, it required heavy use of new resources and technology, those are different softwareÃ¢â¬â¢s applications which all forms part of a new technology. In other words nowadays a remediated work or concept is more likely to be created and made through the contribution of new and efficient media identities. Whats more is that in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s era an audience have grown into creators and distributors compared to long ago an audience were only regarded as consumers. The new media environment somehow turned each and every one of us with the capability and skills to generate, share and having access to media, thus this make us a Ã¢â¬Å"Participatory cultureÃ¢â¬ (Botler Grusin, 2012) Referring to the music by Marylyn Manson Ã¢â¬Å"Sweet DreamsÃ¢â¬ if we compare the remediated project to the original one, there were a significant change in their original conception. A huge gap of difference is to be noted like the original music was released in the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s and at that time there were no Mp3Ã¢â¬â¢s or devices thus the music could only be played through audio CD. Now thanks to technology I converted the audio CD into an easier format which is accessible everywhere that is the MP3. In my remediated project those changes are superficial through the production and editing, thus the most noticeable modification would be use of technology. What key themes and/or concepts covered in the unit do you think are raised by your remediation? Why/How? In this unit of Engaging Media 104, the key concepts covered through my remediation are the different concepts of this unit, those are of Ã¢â¬ËNew MediaÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËParticipatory CultureÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËThe Fair useÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËCopyrightÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËMedia ConvergenceÃ¢â¬â¢. The approach my remediated work reflects those concepts are in diverse ways. Through the conception of Ã¢â¬Å"New MediaÃ¢â¬ , for my project I used different practices of Ã¢â¬Å"New MediaÃ¢â¬ . Those are the access to the internet and using the latest software on a laptop to create my remediation work. From using Ã¢â¬Å"Media ConvergenceÃ¢â¬ , with the mixture of a music form artist Marylyn Manson and using the gameplay video of the game Ã¢â¬Å"Last Of usÃ¢â¬ , animations and subtitles which I mixed to generate the remediated concept. Referring to another approach which is the Ã¢â¬Å"Participatory CultureÃ¢â¬ , my remediated project made me not only an audience member or public but turned me into a creator and producer. The notions of Ã¢â¬Å"CopyrightÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Fair UseÃ¢â¬ were reproduced in my remediated work in the video description. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve mentioned use for an academic use and also mentioned and gave credit to the original owners which is Sony Computer Entertainment and Marylyn Manson on the description figure. My remediation work reflect a different approach from the original gameplay of Ã¢â¬Å"Last of UsÃ¢â¬ as IÃ¢â¬â¢ve describe it with different captions and added a music effect. To conclude, my remediated work followed and amplified the trend of new media and also traditional media. In the case of new media IÃ¢â¬â¢ve used an audio CD of the music Ã¢â¬Å"Sweet DreamsÃ¢â¬ which is now considered as a traditional media and turned it into a new format to be able to use it in my remediation work. (Botler Grusin, 2012) References Botler, J., Grusin, R. (2012). Bolter and Grusin Remediation: Understanding New Media. LaToya L. Sawyer. Retrieved 8 May 2014, from http://latoyasawyer.com/2012/07/11/bolter-and-grusin-remediation-understanding-new-media/ Cahanoo, K. (2014). Remediation Project- Zombie Apocalypse- Curtin University. YouTube. Retrieved 8 May 2014, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7EmmWfAaYZw Marilyn Manson,. (2014). Sweet Dreams (Are Made of This) Marilyn Manson. Retrieved 8 May 2014, from http://marilynmanson.com/video/sweet-dreams-are-made-of-this/ Thelastofus.eu.playstation.com,. (2014). The Last of Us for PS3 Story Trailer | Only on Sony PlayStation. Retrieved 8 May 2014, from http://thelastofus.eu.playstation.com/en_GB/lastofus 104 Engaging Media Assignment 2: Remediation Project Marking Rubric This assignment will be marked according to how well it: Demonstrates an understanding of the shifts in production, consumption and distribution in a new media environment effectively engages an audience, working appropriately within the medium chosen displays evidence of research and planning in terms of remediation and written component Links remediation to unit themes and concepts 1. process (Remediation written component) 2. Presentation (Remediation) 3. Research planning (Remediation written component) 4. concepts (written component) Comments Final Grade: /30
Monday, August 19, 2019
After the Civil War, the South lay in ruins. Streets were lined with the lifeless bodies of Confederate soldiers whilst the buildings smoldered right down to their foundations. In an effort to restore the South to its former charm, the U.S. government plunged the country into what is now called the Reconstruction Era. President LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s approach towards reconstruction, known as the 10% Plan, was rivaled by the collaborative effort of Henry Davis and Benjamin Wade; known as the Wade-Davis Bill. Both plans never made it into effect, but they set a precedent for more rivalries to come. President JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s election did not serve any justice towards the effort of Reconstruction. He was a Ã¢â¬Å"Southern SympathizerÃ¢â¬ who did all in his power to pardon all Confederate soldiers as well as suppress the rights of newly emancipated African Americans. Going against Congress, Johnson implemented his own plan on allowing southern states back into the Union; under which the succeeded states needed to nullify secession and abolish slavery. Johnson also agreed to not pay any war debts to the Confedera...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Percussion: The History Ã¢â¬â¹Despite what many may think, percussion is well known across hundreds of nations all over the world. Percussion has been around for centuries, and it has a very important meaning in the lives of many. It would be safe to assume that Percussion will be around for a long time as well, and play an important part in the lives of many people. Most people see drums as a cool thing to do, others see them as a bunch of irritating noise makers; but do they know the history behind them? So what is percussion? Percussion is a musical instrument played by striking with the hand, a handheld, or a pedal-operated stick or beater (Hudson). There are different groups of percussion instruments, and as time went by, they have immensely evolved from where they started (Zed). So what is percussion, where did it start, and what is it used for? Ã¢â¬â¹How and where did percussion start? Percussion started in Asia Minor [the western peninsula that now constitutes most of modern Turkey], being the first musical apparatus that ever came into being, existing in nearly every culture since before 6000 B.C. (Samuel & Jason). It was started by the native people hitting various items with sticks and hands. Percussion instruments were used for multiple purposes such as chanting, signaling war and communicating with other tribes (Samuel & Jason). The first percussion instruments were likely human hands and feet used to clap or stomp a rhythm. Eventually cultures discovered that they could create louder, more varied sounds with crafted surfaces and implements. In the 18th and 19th centuries, more percussion instruments [like cymbals and triangles] came to being. It is impossible to say where the first percussion instrument was made, t... ...e history of percussion is a very fascinating field of study; it is also important to those in the music industry, and for those who would like to pursue it. Percussion is also important because without it our music would be boring. It is also very helpful, because without it the Native Americans would not have been able to signal or communicate with each other and call for help during war and other times of need. While doing research on this subject I learned only a few things, such as the origin, what they are used for, and its important role in everything aside from marching band. The subject of percussion seems to be a much more important idea than most give credit for. The next time you see or hear about percussion, you will easily identify any of the instruments that a band member is playing. Now, you can give credit to where credit is due and deserving.
In the analytical report entitled Restraint, Weight Suppression, and Self-Report Reliability: How Much Do You Really Weigh? By P.J. Morgan and D.B. Jeffrey, they look at the eating habits of people and categorize them as three types of people. Those categories are Dieting and Overeating group, Current Dieting, and Weight Suppression. The Dieting/Overeating group consists of "individuals who undergo repetitive cycles of dieting and overeating,"(Morgan, 1999). They have the appearance of a diet, but overeat every once in a while to make up for it and to fulfill food desires. The Current Dieting group "encompasses those who consider themselves to be currently on a diet and who consume less food than what is required than what is required for maintenance of their current weight," (Morgan, 1999). They are ones that eat small portions of food and starve themselves to keep their weight down or to lose weight. This can also be categorized as anorexia nervosa, a clin ical eating disorder that afflicts primarily women. The last category is the Weight Suppressors, who "successfully lost weight and have kept it off for some time," (Morgan, 1999). These people have lost the weight by some means and have kept the weight off by adopting better eating and exercise habits. The groups were split into two groups, the control group and the variable group. The experiment was to see what the effects would be on each type of person in the variable group when enticed with a milkshake "Preload" which tastes better than a regular milkshake and is higher in fat and calories. The control group would not receive the "Preload" shake so the experimenters could monitor normal reactions of persons from each group. The result was the "Preload" group ate more than the control group regardless of their category. The authors concluded that the dieting and appetite suppression is a mental game of the person and is only as strong as their own conscience and taste. However, that is only one way to look at the information. The structural functionalist perspective focuses on the manifest and latent reasons for dieting. The manifest reason a person to diet is to look better physically. Physical acceptability is very important to people, both male and female alike. It is a part of out status as a human and gives value to our appearance as well. The latent function is to make ourselves healthier inside and out, by improving our immune system and eliminating cholesterol from our blood vessel, which could cause blockage.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Long ago, in the dark side streets of Florence, starving, frightened, and exhausted, Stefan had made himself a vow. Several vows, in fact, about using the Powers he sensed within himself, and about how to treat the weak, blundering, but still-human creatures around him. Now he was going to break them all. As he'd thought, the surge of Power had passed over Bonnie and Meredith and followed him, but it had receded again, and was now drawn back, waiting. He wouldn't let it wait long. Unencumbered by the burden of Elena's body, he broke into a predator's lope on the empty road. The freezing sleet and wind didn't bother him much. His hunter's senses pierced through them. He turned them all to the task of locating the prey he wanted. No thinking of Elena now. Later, when this was over. Tyler and his friends were still in the Quonset hut. Good. They never knew what was coming as the window burst into flying glass shards and the storm blew inside. Stefan meant to kill when he seized Tyler by the neck and sank his fangs in. That had been one of his rules, not to kill, and he wanted to break it. But another of the toughs came at him before he had quite drained Tyler of blood. The guy wasn't trying to protect his fallen leader, only to escape. It was his bad luck that his route took him across Stefan's path. Stefan flipped him to the ground and tapped the new vein eagerly. The hot coppery taste revived him, warmed him, flowed through him like fire. It made him want more. Power. Life. They had it; he needed it. With the glorious rush of strength that came with what he'd already drunk, he stunned them easily. Then he moved from one to another, drinking deep and throwing them away. It was like popping tops on a six-pack. He was on the last when he saw Caroline huddling in the corner. His mouth was dripping as he raised his head to look at her. Those green eyes, usually so narrow, showed white all around like those of a terrified horse. Her lips were pale blurs as she gabbled soundless pleas. He pulled her to her feet by the green sashes at her waist. She was moaning, her eyes rolling up in their sockets. He wound his hand in her auburn hair to position the exposed throat where he wanted it. His head reared back to strike Ã¢â¬â and Caroline screamed and went limp. He dropped her. He'd had enough anyway. He was bursting with blood, like an overfed tick. He had never felt so strong, so charged with elemental power. Now it was time for Damon. He went out of the Quonset hut the same way he'd come in. But not in human form. A hunting falcon soared out the window and wheeled into the sky. The new shape was wonderful. StrongÃ¢â¬ ¦ and cruel. And its eyes were sharp. It took him where he wanted, skimming over the oak trees of the woods. He was looking for a particular clearing. Stefan ripped bloody strips out of his arms and heard Damon's answering scream of pain and anger. I'm not your weak little brother any more. He sent the thought down to Damon on a stunning blast of Power.And this time I've come for your blood. He felt the backwash of hatred from Damon, but the voice in his mind was mocking.So this is the thanks I get for saving you and your betrothed ? Stefan's wings folded and he dived again, his whole world narrowed to one objective. Killing. He went for Damon's eyes, and the stick Damon had picked up whistled past his new body. His talons tore into Damon's cheek and Damon's blood ran. Good. You shouldn't have left me alive, he told Damon.You should have killed both of us at once. I'll be glad to correct the mistake! Damon had been unprepared before, but now Stefan could feel his drawing Power, arming himself, standing ready.But first you might tell me whom I'm supposed to have killed this time. The falcon's brain could not deal with the riot of emotions the taunting question called up. Screaming wordlessly, it plummeted on Damon again, but this time the heavy stick struck home. Injured, one wing hanging, the falcon dropped behind Damon's back. Stefan changed to his own form at once, scarcely feeling the pain of his broken arm. Before Damon could turn, he grabbed him, the fingers of his good hand digging into his brother's neck and spinning him around. When he spoke, it was almost gently. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena,Ã¢â¬ he said, whispered, and went for Damon's throat. It was dark, and very cold, and someone was hurt. Someone needed help. But she was terribly tired. Elena's eyelids fluttered and opened and that took care of the darkness. As for the coldÃ¢â¬ ¦ she was bone-cold, freezing, chilled to the marrow. And no wonder; there was ice all over her. Somewhere, deep down, she knew it was more than that. What had happened? She'd been at home, asleep Ã¢â¬â no, this was Founders' Day. She'd been in the cafeteria, on the stage. Someone's face had looked funny. It was too much to cope with; she couldn't think. Disembodied faces floated before her eyes, fragments And so tired. Better go back to sleep then. The ice wasn't really that bad. She started to lie down, and then the cries came to her again. She heard them, not with her ears, but with her mind. Cries of anger and of pain. Someone was very unhappy. She sat quite still, trying to sort it all out. There was a quiver of movement at the edge of her vision. A squirrel. She could smell it, which was strange because she'd never smelled a squirrel before. It stared at her with one bright black eye and then it scampered up the willow tree. Elena realized she'd made a grab for it only when she came up empty with her fingernails digging into bark. Now that was ridiculous. What onearth did she want a squirrel for? She puzzled over it for a minute, then lay back down, exhausted. The cries were still going on. She tried to cover her ears, but that did nothing to block them out. Someone was hurt, and unhappy, and fighting. That was it. There was a fight going on. All right. She'd figured it out. Now she could sleep. She couldn't, though. The cries beckoned to her, drew her toward them. She felt an irresistible need to follow them to their source. Andthen she could go to sleep. After she sawÃ¢â¬ ¦ him. Oh, yes, it was coming back now. She rememberedhim. He was the one who understood her, who loved her. He was the one she wanted to be with forever. His face appeared out of the mists in her mind. She considered it lovingly. All right, then. Forhim she would get up and walk through this ridiculous sleet until she found the proper clearing. Until she could join him. Then they'd be together. The very thought of him seemed to warm her. There was a fire inside him that few people could see. She saw it, though. It was like the fire inside her. He seemed to be having some sort of trouble at the moment. At least, there was a lot of shouting. She was close enough to hear it with her ears as well as her mind now. There, beyond that grandfather oak tree. That was where the noise was coming from. He was there, with his black, fathomless eyes, and his secret smile. And he needed her help. She would help him. Shaking ice crystals out of her hair, Elena stepped into the clearing in the wood.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Early Civilizations HUMA215-1205A-32 Topics in Cultural Studies Unit 1 Discussion Board Shannon Sullivan There were many different forces that have contributed to the cultural makeup of early civilization. The beginning of human culture predates back to thousands of years which can be seen through evidence that has been discovered. This evidence that was left behind by the earliest of humans is found by cave paintings that helped to understand how these prehistoric individuals lived and survived in their everyday life.One aspect that contributed to the cultural makeup is from geographical areas from where these early humans lived. The geographical region determined what their main focus was when it came to agriculture, hunting, trade and religion. The availability of these natural resources would affect the kinds of houses they lived in, the types of weapons and tools they used, the food they ate and the type of containers they used to store food and supplies (Trigger, 2003). A numbe r of social issues occurred because of this cultural makeup. These issues were the cause of war and conflicts between many of these early humans.One of the factors that caused social problems was a result of different spiritual and religious beliefs. Others factors were political, economic and the development of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s social class. Since early civilization started, humans lived successfully in small hunting and gathering tribes. This was the dominant way of life until agriculture began to gradually replace hunting and gathering of necessities such as food, clothing and homes which was some of the main cultural influences on early civilizations (All World History for Us, n. d. ). Revisionist history can be bad.The problem with revisionist history is that it usually is written by someone who has a curriculum that they want to publicize. Most of this comes from inaccurate information from an unbiased viewpoint. Their minds tend to be made up prior to looking at the facts. This r esults in choosing facts that support their viewpoint and ignoring facts that disprove their predetermined ideas. Another problem with revisionist history is that it tends to judge people, cultures and experiences in the past by the values, ethics and morals of today's society.People in the past lived with the knowledge, superstitions, values and ethics of their day and should be studied to find the correct information. The only good thing about revisionist history is when the correct information has been given. All World History for Us. (n. d. ). Farming and the Emergence of Complex Societies. Retrieved from http://worldhistoryforusall. sdsu. edu/eras/era3. php Trigger, B. G. (2003). Understanding Early Cilivizations. Retrieved from http://catdir. loc. gov/catdir/samples/cam034/2002074052. pdf
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Introduction A library is a place in which literary and artistic materials such as books, periodicals, newspapers, pamphlets, prints, records, and tapes, are kept for reading, reference or lending. A collection of such materials, especially when systematically arranged; a room of private home for such collection. At first glance, your library is a bunch of books with a librarian to check them out to you, and back in when you return them. Your librarian insures (of tries to, as money permits) your library is well stocked with current titles. These current titles include, in addition toÃ books, videos, tapes and CDs, magazines, encyclopedia, genealogical research stuff and more. The librarian also has to keep the building neat and in good repair and also these things only shows a few of the things which make up your library. Early modern libraries Ã¢â¬â Johannes GutenbergÃ¢â¬â¢s movable type innovation in the 15th century revolutionized bookmaking. From the 15th century in central and northern Italy, the assiduously assembled libraries of humanists and their enlightened patrons provided a nucleus around which an Ã¢â¬Å"academyÃ¢â¬ of scholars congregated in each Italian city of consequence. Cosimo de Medici in Florence established his own collection, which formed the basis of the Laurentian Library.  In Rome, the papal collections were brought together by Pope Nicholas V, in separate Greek and Latin libraries, and housed by Pope Sixtus IV, who consigned the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana to the care of his librarian, the humanist Bartolomeo Platina in February 1475.  In the 16th century Sixtus V bisected BramanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Cortile del Belvedere with a cross-wing to house the Apostolic Library in suitable magnificence. Background of the Study Objectives of the Study: The purpose of this study is to expand the knowledge about the library system. We developed a new library system for easier transactions of the library and a hassle-free job. General Objective Ã¢â¬â This study aims to design and develop library system for faster processing and hassle-free for borrowing of books of the students. Specific Objectives Ã¢â¬â In order to meet the requirements of the general objective, the following specific objectives were formulated: 1. To define possible problems in a library. 2. To analyze how the traditional library system works. 3. To prove that the proposed system is technically and operationally feasible for implementation. Statement of the Problems 1. When most users do not return books at the exact deadline. 2. When most people make noise in the library. 3. Not following a rule that one shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t bring food or drinks. 4. When some of the books cannot be easily found due to unorganized compilation of it. 5. Sometimes itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard for the librarian to use the traditional library system so we must prefer a new system for the library. Scope and Limitation Scope Ã¢â¬â The primary objective is to develop a computerized library system that can help others in listing and manipulating the transaction throughout the borrowing and returning process of the book. The proposed system will provide an innovation for the current traditional system that others use. Limitation Ã¢â¬â Although this research was carefully prepared, I am still aware of its limitations and shortcomings. First, because of the limit, this research was only conducted only a small size of population like the also students in the entire campus. Therefore, to generalize the results for larger groups, the study should have involved more participants at different levels. Second, the population of the experimental group is small, only thirty-five students and might not represent the majority of the students of the intermediate level. Third, since the questionnaire designed to measure the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards the use of communication strategies might give useful information about the impacts of communicative strategies; it seems not to provide enough evidence of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ actual behaving to communication skills in their speaking performance. Significance of the Study The study is aimed at enhancing the existing manual processing system that will make operations more organized, efficient and convenient to use. It is also used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed. A library system is usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for patrons, one for staff). Most library systems separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them integrated with a unified interface. Definition of Terms Database Ã¢â¬â An organized body of related information Library Ã¢â¬â A library is a collection of sources, resources, and services, and the structure in which it is housed; it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. In the more traditional sense, a library is a collection of books. It can mean the collection itself, the building or room that houses such a collection, or both. The term Ã¢â¬Å"libraryÃ¢â¬ has itself acquired a secondary meaning: Ã¢â¬Å"a collection of useful material for common use. Ã¢â¬ This sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics, statistics, electronics and biology. It can also be used by publishers in naming series of related books, e. g. The Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology. Libraries most often provide a place of silence for studying. Librarian Ã¢â¬â A librarian a professional library worker. In most cases, a librarian holds at least a MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in Library Science from an ALA-accredited library school. He or she may have additional degrees. System Ã¢â¬â A system is a collection of elements or components that are organized for a common purpose. The word sometimes describes the organization or plan itself (and is similar in meaning to method, as in Ã¢â¬Å"I have my own little systemÃ¢â¬ ) and sometimes describes the parts in the system (as in Ã¢â¬Å"computer systemÃ¢â¬ ). Data Flow Diagram Ã¢â¬â A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the Ã¢â¬Å"flowÃ¢â¬ of data through an information system. DFDs can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design). Flowchart Ã¢â¬â A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with arrows. This diagrammatic representation can give a step-by-step solution to a given problem. Process operations are represented in these boxes, and arrows connecting them represent flow of control. Data flows are not typically represented in a flowchart, in contrast with data flow diagrams; rather, they are implied by the sequencing of operations. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields. Chapter II Review of Related Literature Local Studies The Silliman University Main Library System began its services with only two bookcases and one small room in Silliman Hall. From this humble beginning, the library collection grew steadily. Today, with its present magnificent edifice, some observers have been heard to remark that it could well be among the best in Southeast Asia. The library aims to equip itself with updated materials, facilities, and equipment in support of the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for excellence in all its academic programs. The Library now holds more than 100,000 volumes of books on various subjects. It subscribes to local and foreign serials and maintains special pamphlet collections, namely, Filipiniana, Southeast Asia, and United Nations. It also has a Sillimaniana collection which is housed in an air-conditioned room located at the southern portion of the first floor of the library building. Materials in the collection include the Weekly Sillimanian, Sillimanian Magazine, Portal, Faculty and Staff publications, and others. Various plaques and trophies awarded to the University, as well as, portraits of present and past presidents of Silliman University are also on display. In terms of facilities, the Library provides individual study carrels for its users. In addition, there are also faculty study rooms for the use of faculty/staff members who are undertaking research work for the University, or writing their theses or dissertations. These faculty rooms are available upon application at the University LibrarianÃ¢â¬â¢s Office. For group discussions, there are two discussion rooms available at the second floor of the library building, on a first come, first served basis. Foreign Studies ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Time for a National Digital-Library System By David H. Rothman William F. Buckley Jr. , once denounced the growing popularity of CD-ROMÃ¢â¬â¢s in student research. ShouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t young people learn from real books? Tom Peters, a veteran public-library advocate, is coordinator of LibraryCity. org, a new online ad hoc group that will seek to deal with these matters, especially whether the national digital library should be mainly for the intellectual elite or also serve the rest of society in many directly practical ways. Peters is a former director of the Center for Library Initiatives of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, a consortium of the Big Ten universities plus the University of Chicago. I am co-founder of LibraryCity, and like Peters, I hope that Darnton and others will agree with the idea of a genuine public library rich in content and services for the nonelite as well as the elite. HarvardÃ¢â¬â¢s Berkman Center for Internet & Society is sponsoring the March workshop to kick off its research and planning initiative for a Ã¢â¬Å"Digital Public Library of America. Ã¢â¬ With funds from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the project will bring together a diverse group of stakeholders to define the scope, architecture, costs, and administration of such a library. LibraryCityÃ¢â¬â¢s intent is to augment the Harvard effort, rather than replace it, by offering a grass-roots perspective in depth. Chapter III Methodology and System Software Design Nowadays, in a highly technological society, human productivity is made more efficient through the development of electronic gadgets. Now, with the advent of such modernization in education, one way to globalize the process of research is to realize that technology is advancing at an incredibly fast pace. Computers are not confined to being used for entertainment but its role in education is also vast. In addition, it is a place in which we get information in any format and from many sources. The librarian has to keep the room neat so that it is conducive for learning. The librarian is also the person who is liable for monitoring all the books that are borrowed and returned by the borrowers. The aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of the computerized library system in order to support the continuous learning in various pedagogical settings. To achieve this primary goal, the study should consider the three objectives. First is to compare the existing library system from the traditional system and identify the pros and cons in both public and private learning institutions. Second is to compare and contrast the various schools or universities that successfully managed the computerized approach as new library system. Third is to identify the weaknesses and potential threats to make a recommendation on how to strengthen the computerized library system. Respondents of the Study We have asked 25 people randomly and mostly they are students and teachers. Since data for this study will be collected by mail or by giving them a questionnaire, the respondents have the convenience of answering the survey in their own home or wherever is comfortable with them. Data Gathering Technique The proponent gathered support documents and point of views of the target users and beneficiaries of the proposed system at the Customs office. The information gathered were compiled and processed for use in the development of the proposed system. The different ways of gathering information and ideas used in this study were: Interview Ã¢â¬â This technique, wherein the proponent discusses and poses question to the respondent, was used to gather data and information for the study. Refer to Appendix Ã¢â¬â B for the contents of the interviews conducted. Questionnaire Ã¢â¬â This data gathering instrument contains a series of formulated questions submitted to a number of people in order to obtain information on a particular subject matter. The proponent prepared printed paper questionnaires and distributed them to the respondents. Refer to Appendix Ã¢â¬â C for a copy of this Questionnaire. Observation Ã¢â¬â This instrument was used in analyzing the existing system. The proponent observed and noted the flow of work in the existing system. The researcher then used it to identify where problems are commonly encountered. The proponent would use the observations to suggest a better and effective system. Refer to Appendix Ã¢â¬â D for notes made during observation tours and meetings. Evaluation Ã¢â¬â This method was used to assess the capability level of the existing and the proposed system software using a set of criteria, namely: accessibility, accuracy, efficiency, and speed and user friendliness. Refer to Appendix Ã¢â¬â E for a copy of the Evaluation Form. Statistical Treatment of Data Information and data gathered in the course of the study were both qualitative and quantitative in form. For the quantitative data, the researcher applied statistical methods of analysis in order to the properly interpret and present data in a more understandable form. The following statistical methods were used to interpret the results: Percentage Ã¢â¬â This statistic refers to the relation between the part under consideration to the whole, expressed in hundredths. Ranking Ã¢â¬â This refers to arranging of scores of the data in numerical order. Frequency Ã¢â¬â This represents the number of respondents that obtained a particular score. Weighted mean Wm = f (x1 + x2 + Ã¢â¬ ¦. xn) N Method Used in Developing the System This part shows the various phases of the software development which are presented as a step-by-step process for the proponent to understand better the development of the proposed system. It is in this stage where the important parts of the proposed system were put together. The proponent used the classical life cycle model which is also known as the waterfall model in developing the system. It views the software process as being made up of number of stages namely: the Planning phase, the Analysis phase, the Design phase, the Development phase and the Implementation phase. Refer to Figure 3. 0. Figure 2. 0 The Waterfall Model By: Ian Somerville Planning Phase Ã¢â¬â In this phase, a study is conducted with the aim of identifying problems in the existing system. It also determines the conditions for solving the problems, whether the proponent should spend more time and work, or gather additional information. The proponent needs an overview of the projected work to determine the, resources needed, the requirements of the system, a graphical outline of the project, and the timetable to adhere with and the projections to make. Analysis Phase Ã¢â¬â This phase is used to have a clear understanding of the existing system in order to identify problems encountered so that it may be corrected or modified. It also identifies the data and processes used in the existing system that would also be used in the proposed system but applied in an automated and organized manner. Design Phase Ã¢â¬â The proponent should design a program with a logical process flow that the target users could easily and clearly understand. Every object in the commands should be in the correct hierarchical position from main to specific functions and processes. The proponent should make a program that is designed to attract the users. Development Phase Ã¢â¬â In this phase, the proponent starts to develop the system using information from the previous phases. With the shortcomings of the existing system identified, the proponent incorporates the solutions that would make the proposed system better. The problems encountered in the existing system are now considered solved with the proposed system an enhanced version of the former. Implementation Phase Ã¢â¬â This is final phase wherein the proposed system is now installed, brought to operation and used. Prior to actual operation, the system is tested for bugs and a simulated run is conducted to verify if the proposed system indeed improves the operations of the existing system. Analytical Tools Analytical tools were used to highlight the various parts the proposed system. They served to give a graphical representation of the system to the system developer. The tools used in developing the software were: Data Flow Diagram (DFD), Visual table of contents (VTOC), Input process and Output (IPO) diagram, Program Flowchart. These were considered very important in developing the system. Program Flowchart Ã¢â¬â This is a logical chart containing symbols referring to computer operations that describe how the program works or performs. This tool was used to design and develop overall software architecture. See Appendix Ã¢â¬â (A) Context Diagram Ã¢â¬â The Ã¢â¬ËcontextÃ¢â¬â¢ of any situation is the external environment in which it exists. In process terms, the context contains other processes that provide inputs and outputs to and from the process in question. See Appendix Ã¢â¬â (B) Visual Table of Contents (VTOC) Ã¢â¬â This shows the hierarchical structure of the system moving from general to specific. It is also the chart that allocates different entities within the main program. See Appendix Ã¢â¬â (C) HIPO (Hierarchy plus Input-Process-Output) Ã¢â¬â technique is a tool for planning and/or documenting a computer program. A HIPO model consists of a hierarchy chart that graphically represents the programÃ¢â¬â¢s control structure and a set of IPO (Input-Process-Output) charts that describe the inputs to, the outputs from, and the functions (or processes) performed by each module on the hierarchy chart. See Appendix Ã¢â¬â (E) Proposed System (Screen Layouts) Ã¢â¬â You can see the appearance of the entire skin layout of the system. See Appendix (F) Exploded Diagram Ã¢â¬â A more detailed than the context diagram. See Appendix Ã¢â¬â (G) Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Ã¢â¬â It represents all the entities to the system, the flow of the data from the beginning to the end, together with the processes undertaken. Refer to Appendix G for the Data Flow Diagram used in developing the system. See Appendix Ã¢â¬â (H) Gantt chart Ã¢â¬â is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. See Appendix Ã¢â¬â (I) Chapter IV. Recommendation This research study suggest that Conclusion APPENDICES Appendix A The Flowchart of the Proposed Library System F T NO YES Appendix B Context Diagram Appendix C Visual Table of Contents (VTOC) Appendix D Module: Login Title: Computerized Library System Reference: 1. 0 Author: Group 3 |INPUT |PROCESS |OUTPUT | |Mouse Click |If the choice is username then load and display|Username | | | | | |Login Form |If the choice is password then load and display|Password | Module: Information of the Student Title: Computerized Library System Reference: 2. 0 Author: Group 3. |INPUT |PROCESS |OUTPUT | |Mouse Click |If the choice is name of student then load and |Name of Student | | |display | | | | | | | |If the choice is course then load and display |Course | | | | | | |If the choice is section then load and display |Section | |Information of the Student | | | | |If the choice is year level then load and | | | |display |Year level | | | | | | |If the choice is add student then load and |Add Student | | |display | | Module: Details of the Book borrowed; date borrowed Title: Computerized Library System Reference: 3. 0 Author: Group 3. |INPUT |PROCESS |OUTPUT | |Mouse Click |If the choice is Name of the Book then load and|Name of the Book | | |display | | | | | | | |If the choice is Author of the Book then load |Author of the Book | | |and display | | |Details of the book Borrowed; Date | |Date Borrowed | |Borrowed/Returned |If the choice is Borrowed then load and | | | |display | | | | |Date that the book will be returned | | |If the choice is Date that the book will be | | | |returned then load and display | | Module: List of Borrowers Title: Computerized Library System Reference: 4. 0 Author: Group 3. |INPUT |PROCESS |OUTPUT | |Mouse Click | | | |List of Borrowers |If the choice is Table view of borrowers then |Table view of borrowers | | |load and display | | Appendix F SCREEN LAYOUTS OF THE SYSTEM The screen interface of the login form [pic] The screen interface of the error message [pic] The screen interface of the main form [pic] The screen interface of the adding students form [pic] The screen interface of the details of the book form [pic] The screen interface of the table view of the borrowers form [pic] Appendix G Data Flow Diagram Verify Filling up Info. Append Student Saving new student D1 Adding Student Table viewFilling up infos. Appendix H Exploded Diagram |Task Name |Nov. 7 |Nov. 14 |Nov. 28 |Dec. 5 |Dec. 12 | | |T | |2. Compile Question for Interview | | |3. Interview | | | |4. Problem Statement | | | |5. Initial Scheduling | | | |6. Gathering of Source Document | | | |7. Identifying Customer Needs | | | |8. Concept Design and Presentation | | | |9. Research Database Option | | | |10. Individual Idea Generation | | | |11. Select Top Concepts | | | |12. Understand Technologies To Be | | | |Used | | | |13. Design System | | | Appendix I Gantt Chart |Task Name |Nov. 7 |Nov. 14 |Nov. 28 |Dec. 5 |Dec. 12 | | |T | |15. Develop Alpha Version | | |16. Develop Beta Version | | | |17. Finalize System Version | | | |18. Final Revisions and | | | |Defense | | | |19. Defense of the System | | | |20. Revisions of | | | |Documentation | | | |20. Submission of Final | | | |Revision | | | Bibliography Credits: www. wikipedia. com www. ivythesis. typepad. com www. ideo. columbia. edu www. thesisblog. com www. thefreelibrary. com Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [pic] Planning Phase Analysis Phase. Design Phase Development Phase Implementation Phase 2. 1 Name of Student 2. 0 Information of the Student 1. 2 Password 1. 1 Username 1. 0 User Login Print Error msg Print FrmAdd FrmAdd Autho- rization r 4. 0 List of Borrowers 3. 0 Details of the book; date borrowed/returned 2. 0 Student Information 1. 0 Administrator Login Student 0. 0 Computerized Library System 0. 0 COMPUTERIZED LIBRARY SYSTEM Librarian Start Administrator Login Form Print FrmLogin Verification Error Message Saved A A Student Info. Print FrmMain Saved Details of the book; Date borrowed/returned. Print FrmBorrow Saved List of borrowers Print View End 2. 2 Course 2. 3 Section 2. 4 Year level 2. 5 Add Student 4. 0 Details of the book; Date borrowed/returned 4. 1 Name of the Book borrowed 4. 2 Author of the Book 4. 3 Date Borrowed 4. 4 Date to be returned 5. 0 List of Borrowers 5. 1 Table view of the Borrowers 3. 0 Add Student 3. 1 Name of Student 3. 2 Course 3. 3 Section 3. 4 Year level User Login Form 1. 1 User Login 2. 1 Information of the student 3. 1 Add Student 5. 1 Producing a table of view of the students 4. 1 Details of the book | date borrowed / returned.