Monday, September 30, 2019
eLearning 2009 Publication No. 91860 Rate of Reaction of Sodium Thiosulfate and Hydrochloric Acid Rate Laws Introduction The purpose of this demonstration is to investigate the effect of sodium thiosulfate concentration on the rate of reaction of sodium thiosulfate with hydrochloric acid. The reaction, which produces solid sulfur, will be followed by measuring the time needed for the reaction mixture to become opaque. The results will be analyzed graphically to determine the order of reactionÃ¢â¬â the mathematical relationship between the reactant concentration and the rate.Concepts Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kinetics Ã¢â¬ ¢ Order of reaction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rate law Ã¢â¬ ¢ Concentration Materials Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 2 M, 25 mL Sodium thiosulfate solution, Na2S2O3, 0. 15 M, 150 mL Distilled or deionized water Beakers, 100-mL, 5 Graduated cylinders, 50- or 100-mL, 2 Graduated cylinders, 10-mL, 5 Overhead projector or light box Permanent marker Stirring rods Stopwatch or timer Safety Precaution s Hydrochloric acid solution is corrosive to eyes and skin. It is moderately toxic by ingestion and inhalation. Sodium thiosulfate solution is a body tissue irritant.The reaction of sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acid generates sulfur dioxide gas, which is a skin and eye irritant. Perform this demonstration in a well-ventilated lab only. Avoid contact of all chemicals with eyes and skin. Wear chemical splash goggles, temperature-resistant gloves, and chemical-resistant apron. Please review current Material Safety Data Sheets for additional safety, handling, and disposal information. Procedure 1. Label five 100-mL beakers 1Ã¢â¬â5 and clean the bottom of each beaker. 2. Draw a large Ã¢â¬Å"XÃ¢â¬ across the bottom on the outside of each beaker.Place the beakers on an overhead projector stage or a light box so that students can view the Ã¢â¬Å"X. Ã¢â¬ 3. Using separate graduated cylinders for the solution and water, measure and add the required amounts of 0. 15 M sodium th iosulfate and distilled water to each beaker. Be as precise as possible. Beaker 0. 15 M Na2S2O3 Distilled Water 1 50. 0 mL 0 mL 2 40. 0 mL 10. 0 mL 3 30. 0 mL 20. 0 mL 4 20. 0 mL 30. 0 mL 5 10. 0 mL 40. 0 mL 4. Have students calculate the final concentration of sodium thiosulfate in each beaker 1Ã¢â¬â5. 91860 011509 Flinn ScientificÃ¢â¬âTeaching Chemistry eLearning Video Series 5.Record the following information in a data table: Beaker, volume of Na2S2O3 solution, volume of distilled water, concentration of Na2S2O3, reaction time (sec), and 1/reaction time (reaction rate). See the Sample Data and Results table in the Discussion section. 6. Measure 5. 0 mL of 2 M hydrochloric acid into each of five 10-mL graduated cylinders. 7. Starting with beaker #1, carefully add the HCl all in one pour to the sodium thiosulfate solution. Stir the solution once with a stirring rod and immediately start timing. 8. Stop timing when the black Ã¢â¬Å"XÃ¢â¬ is no longer visible. Record the rea ction time in seconds in the data table. . Repeat steps 7 and 8 with beakers 2Ã¢â¬â5. 10. Calculate 1/reaction time for each trial. Plot concentration vs. time and concentration vs. 1/time on separate graphs. Disposal Please consult your current Flinn Scientific Catalog/Reference Manual for general guidelines and specific procedures governing the disposal of laboratory waste. Collect the leftover reaction mixtures and filter to separate the solid sulfur product. The sulfur may be disposed of in a landfill according to Flinn Suggested Disposal Method #26a. The filtrate may be neutralized and disposed of down the drain with excess water according toFlinn Suggested Disposal Method #26b. Tips Ã¢â¬ ¢ This activity may be performed as a chemical demonstration with classroom participation or as a student activity. The contents of the beakers project well on an overhead projector and the time to the disappearance of the black Ã¢â¬Å"XÃ¢â¬ is easily seen and measured. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The reac tion may be downsized for a student lab activity. Carry out individual trials in separate wells in a 6-well reaction plate or in small medicine cups. If students will be doing the experiment in the lab, it is a good idea for them to start with beaker #5, because it takes the longest time. The activity may also be performed as a cooperative class exercise with different groups investigating different variables, including the effect of HCl concentration and the effect of temperature. The reaction rate is zero-order with respect to HCl. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Empty the beakers and clean them thoroughly using paper towels to remove the sulfur. If the colloidal sulfur is allowed to sit in the beakers for an extended time, it will be much more difficult to remove the deposits from the glass. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To achieve better mixing of the reactants, add the hydrochloric acid using a 10-mL luer-lock plastic syringe (without needle).Squirt the acid using a fair amount of force. Ã¢â¬ ¢ When lower concentrations o f sodium thiosulfate are used, the rate law does not appear to be as simple as predicted in this experiment. At lower concentrations, the reaction appears to be closer to 3/2-order in sodium thiosulfate and 1/2-order in hydrochloric acid. The reaction time is more difficult to measure at lower concentrations because the onset of turbidity is more gradual. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Both the overall chemical equation and the mechanism for the decomposition of sodium thiosulfate are more complex than suggested by Equation 1.The reaction is acid-catalyzed, which means that the acid concentration must have some bearing on the rate in terms of producing an equilibrium concentration of HS2O3Ã¢â¬â ions, The HS2O3Ã¢â¬â ion is a reactive intermediate, reacting further with additional S2O32Ã¢â¬â ions to produce polymeric ions containing multiple S atoms. When the chain of S atoms in a polymeric ion becomes long enough, it Ã¢â¬Å"closesÃ¢â¬ in on itself to form a ring of elemental sulfur (S8). Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â S2O32Ã¢â¬â + H+ < Ã¢â¬â > HS2O3 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â HÃ¢â¬âSÃ¢â¬âSO3Ã¢â¬â + nS2O32Ã¢â¬â > HÃ¢â¬âSÃ¢â¬â(S)nÃ¢â¬âSO3 + nSO32Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â HÃ¢â¬âSÃ¢â¬âSnÃ¢â¬âSO3 < Ã¢â¬â > H+ + SÃ¢â¬âSnÃ¢â¬âSO3 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â SÃ¢â¬âS7Ã¢â¬âSO3 > S8 + SO32Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â2Ã¢â¬â Ã © 2009 Flinn Scientific, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 91860 Discussion Sodium thiosulfate reacts with hydrochloric acid to form sulfur and sulfur dioxide (Equation 1). Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) > S(s) + SO2(g) + 2NaCl(aq) Equation 1 The kinetics of the reaction can be analyzed by graphing the concentration of Na2S2O3 as a function of both reaction time and 1/time. A plot of concentration versus time gives a curved line, which levels off as it approaches the x-axisÃ¢â¬âthe reaction slows down as the reactant concentration decreases. The rate of a reaction is inversely proportional to reaction time.A plot of concentratio n of versus 1/time gives a straight line. The rate is directly proportional to concentration, and the reaction appears to be first order with respect to sodium thiosulfate concentration. Sample Data and Results Beaker 1 2 3 4 5 Volume of Na2S2O3 (mL) 50 40 30 20 10 Volume of H2O (mL) 0 10 20 30 40 [Na2S2O3], M 0. 15 0. 12 0. 090 0. 060 0. 030 Reaction time (sec) 22. 5 27. 3 35. 1 60. 0 159. 1 Reaction rate (1/time, secÃ¢â¬â1) . 0444 . 0367 . 0285 . 0167 . 00629 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0. 00 Effect of concentration on reaction time 0. 05 0. 10 0. 15 0. 20 Na 2 S2 O3 Concentration, M 0. 07 0. 6 0. 05 0. 04 0. 03 0. 02 0. 01 0 0. 00 Effect of concentration on reaction rate 0. 05 Na 2 S2 O3 Concentration, M 0. 10 0. 15 0. 20 Ã¢â¬â3Ã¢â¬â Ã © 2009 Flinn Scientific, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 91860 Connecting to the National Standards This laboratory activity relates to the following National Science Education Standards (1996): Unifying Concepts and Processes: Grades KÃ¢ â¬â12 Evidence, models, and explanation Constancy, change, and measurement Content Standards: Grades 9Ã¢â¬â12 Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry Content Standard B: Physical Science, structure and properties of matter, chemical reactions, motions and forcesFlinn ScientificÃ¢â¬âTeaching ChemistryÃ¢â ¢ eLearning Video Series A video of the Rate of Reaction of Sodium Thiosulfate and Hydrochloric Acid activity, presented by Annis Hapkiewicz, is available in Rate Laws, part of the Flinn ScientificÃ¢â¬âTeaching Chemistry eLearning Video Series. Materials for Rate of Reaction of Sodium Thiosulfate and Hydrochloric Acid are available from Flinn Scientific, Inc. Materials required to perform this activity are available in the Reaction Order and Rate LawsÃ¢â¬âStudent Laboratory Kit available from Flinn Scientific.Materials may also be purchased separately. Catalog No. Description AP4864 H0034 S0114 AP1572 GP1010 GP2005 GP2015 Reaction Order and Rate LawsÃ¢â¬âStudent La boratory Kit Hydrochloric Acid, 3 M, 500 mL Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate, Reagent, 500 g Timer, Stopwatch, Flinn Beaker, Borosilicate Glass, 100 mL Graduated Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 10-mL Graduated Cylinder, Borosilicate Glass, 50-mL Consult your Flinn Scientific Catalog/Reference Manual for current prices. Ã¢â¬â4Ã¢â¬â Ã © 2009 Flinn Scientific, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 91860
Sunday, September 29, 2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS1. PURPOSE22. SCOPE23. REFERENCES24. TERMS, DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS35. RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY36. RECORD & DATA KEEPING37. DOCUMENT CHANGE HISTORY38. ASSET MANAGEMENT DEFINITION49. STAKEHOLDERS410. STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS411. ASSET MANAGEMENT QUALITY FRAMEWORK512. ASSET MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES513. ASSET MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENT PROCESS1014. ASSET MANAGEMENT STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT1115. ASSET MANAGEMENT SYSTEM COMPONENTS1116.CONCLUSION18| LIST OF FIGURES Figure 21: Scope of Asset Management Framework (PAS55)2 Figure 121: Rand Water Supply and Purification Systems6 Figure 122: Asset Management Plans7 Figure 123: Asset Management Planning and Management Structure8 Figure 124: Organogram9 Figure 151: Asset Management System Components12 1. PURPOSE The purpose of this document is to provide a framework for the adoption and implementation of asset management for Rand WaterÃ¢â¬â¢s physical asset portfolio. 2. SCOPEThis framework applies to physi cal assets associated with production infrastructure under the jurisdiction of Rand Water. Assets consist of buildings and property, pipelines, civil structures, mechanical equipment, electrical equipment water treatment process plants, and automation equipment. It excludes human assets, financial assets, information assets, intangible assets, and movable equipment. Figure 21: Scope of Asset Management Framework (PAS55) 3. REFERENCES The following documents must be read in conjunction with this Framework. Document Title| Document No. Location| Quality Management System Requirements| ISO 9001:2000 | RW Library| Environmental Management System Requirements| ISO14001:2004| RW Library| Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations| OHS Act (85 of 1993)| RW Library| Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series| OHSAS 18001:2007| RW Library| International Infrastructure Management Manual Ã¢â¬â South Africa Edition 2006 | ISBN No:0-473-10685-X| RW Library| Asset Management Part 1: Specification for the optimized management of Assets| BSI PAS 55-1:2008| RW Library| Asset Management Part 2: Guidelines for the application of PAS 55-1| BSI PAS 55-2:2008| RW Library| Rand Water Ã¢â¬â Strategic Asset Management Process Guides Ã¢â¬â Know Your Assets| RW SAM 60001 BPM SIS| RW Library| 4. TERMS, DEFINITIONS & ABBREVIATIONS These are terms used in the organization & are unique to the company terminology, business and culture. AMAsset ManagementAMFAsset Management Framework AMPAsset Management Plan KPIKey Performance Indicators O&MOperations and Maintenance R&DResearch and Development RWRand Water SAMStrategic Asset Management 5. RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY The Chief Executive is accountable and Portfolio Heads are responsible for the implementation of Asset Management in RW. The General Manager: Strategic Asset Management is responsible for the implementation of Strategic Asset Management with regards to production infrastructure under the jurisdiction of Ra nd Water. 6. RECORD & DATA KEEPING Record Document| Form/Doc Number| Location | Retention Period| | | | | | | | | 7. DOCUMENT CHANGE HISTORYThe following table contains the history of this document with a description of each revision. Date| Previous revision number| New revision number| Description of each revision| 23 Sep 2010| N/A| 0| First draft| 17 Nov 2010| 0| A| Second draft| 10 Dec 2010| a| B| Third draft| 17 Feb 2011| b| C| Fourth draft| 9 Mar 2011| c| D| Fifth draft| 8. ASSET MANAGEMENT DEFINITION The following definition for asset management is adopted, based on PAS 55: Asset Management is the systematic and coordinated activities and practices through which Rand Water optimally manages its assets, their associated performance, risks and expenditures over their lifecycle for the purpose of achieving its organizational strategic plan. 9. STAKEHOLDERSThe following stakeholders are relevant to asset management: * Customers who purchase water from Rand Water; * Suppliers and s ervice providers; * Government; * Standards authorities; and * Auditor General of South Africa. 10. STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS The following legislation and regulation are relevant: Annual Financial Statements are required to be prepared in compliance with the South African Statements of Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (SA GAAP), the Water Services Act No 108 of 1997, Companies Act No 61 of 1973, and the Public Finance Management Act No 1 of 1999 as amended. The Constitution (and its amendments) secures the right of every Citizen to sufficient water;The Water Act ensures that everyone has access to water, water resources are conserved, protected and managed, proper water resource planning takes place, the costs of managing and developing the resource is addressed and that water resource institutions are established. The Water Services Act defines the rights to basic water supply, the setting of national standards and norms, water services planning, regulation of water services, e stablishment of water boards, the monitoring of water service provision and the promotion of effective water resource management and conservation. The Water Services Act is supported by the Strategic Framework for Water Services which sets out an implementation framework for the Act and gives effect to the regulation of water services delivery.The principle objectives of the PFMA are to secure transparency, accountability, and sound management of the revenue, expenditure, assets and liabilities of the institutions to which this Act applies. In terms of this Act, from an asset management perspective Rand Water is: * responsible for the effective, efficient, economical and transparent use of the resources of the department, trading entity or constitutional institution; * responsible for the management, including the safe-guarding and the maintenance of the assets, and for the management of the liabilities; The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA) (85 of 1993, Construction Regulat ions) state that: the owner of any Ã¢â¬Å"structureÃ¢â¬ (incl. nfrastructure such as waterworks, buildings, drainage works and roads) to maintain such structure in a manner that the structure remains safe for continued use and such maintenance records shall be kept and made available to an inspector for continued use. 11. ASSET MANAGEMENT QUALITY FRAMEWORK The development of an ISO Standard for Asset Management is currently in progress. The ISO Standard development is being led by the British Standards Institute (BSI) as secretariat and there are 22 countries participating and 14 countries observing. South Africa is participating with representation from the SABS. The ISO standard is expected to be launched in late 2011. The final ISO standard is expected to be substantially aligned with the current PAS55 specification for asset management, which has widespread adoption around the world by both public and private enterprises.Rand Water will adopt the PAS55 specification as an int erim framework for the implementation of asset management until the launch of the ISO Quality Standard for Asset Management. Once the ISO Quality Standard has been launched, Rand Water can evaluate the formal adoption of the Quality Standard within the organization. 12. ASSET MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The strategic assets of Rand Water work together as one large system, for which custodianship is assigned to the Senior Manager Assets. However, the Rand Water assets can currently be split into 4 main supply systems and 2 main purification systems, on the basis of geography and function.The systems are the following: * Eikenhof Supply System * Zwartkopjies Supply System * Palmiet Supply System * Mapleton Supply System * Vereeniging Purification System * Zuikerbosch Purification System These systems are shown in the figure below. Figure 121: Rand Water Supply and Purification Systems The management objectives of the Supply Systems are somewhat different from the m anagement objectives of the Purification Systems. The management objectives of the Supply Systems are focused on satisfying commercial customer service levels, managing current and future user demand, and managing water delivery including water conveyance, pumping, storing, and end user delivery control.The Purification System management objectives revolve around managing the purification of raw water to agreed quantity and quality service levels. Given the vast magnitude of the assets under Rand Water control and the different management objectives, it is prudent to split the asset management planning responsibility according to the different supply systems and then roll these plans up into a consolidated Asset Management Plan (AMP) for the entire organization. This is shown schematically below. Eikenhof Supply System AMP Zwartkopjies Supply System AMP Palmiet Supply System AMP Mapleton Supply System AMP Vereeniging Purification System AMP Zuikerbosch Purification System AMP Rand W ater Consolidated AMP Figure 122: Asset Management PlansAlthough the management objectives and the planning are logically split according to the functional areas above, the technical expertise is asset type specific and cuts across the different functional areas. Seven areas of technical expertise have been identified below and a detailed breakdown of assets is provided in Annexure A. : 1. Buildings and Property; 2. Civil Structures; 3. Pipelines; 4. Electrical Equipment; 5. Mechanical Equipment; 6. Process Plant; and 7. Automation Equipment. In order to effectively manage the asset portfolio, planning should done by functional area, with each functional area being assigned to one Asset Management Planner.The technical expertise of managing the assets is best arranged by asset group and should be headed by an Asset Manager. The Asset Management Planner should have expertise in planning and the primary management responsibility of developing and implementing Asset Management Plans fo r each Supply System. This includes defining service levels, forecasting demand, integration, optimised decision making, and developing long term financial plans. The Asset Manager should have a strong technical background in design, rehabilitation, and maintenance of the asset group and the primary management responsibility of optimally managing the lifecycle of the asset group, bearing in mind the priorities and constraints of each Supply System.This includes managing condition data collection, assessing asset risk, setting standards, and the development of maintenance and rehabilitation strategies. These two groups will interact in a matrix structure as shown below. Figure 123: Asset Management Planning and Management Structure It should be noted that the Asset Managers help the Asset Management Planners develop the best asset management strategies to achieve the specific objectives of the Supply System. For example, the strategy to manage pumps in a Supply System may be differen t from the strategy to manage pumps in a Purification System as the pumps pose different risks to the achievement of the management outcomes.Even between two different Supply Systems, similar pumps may have different strategies as they may pose different risks to each particular Supply System. The organogram under the Senior Manager Assets is shown below. Figure 124: Organogram There is substantial integration required between all the units under the Senior Manager: Assets to implement effective asset management practices. These interfaces will mature with the implementation of a structured asset management improvement process. 13. 14. ASSET MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENT PROCESS Rand Water is at the initiation stage of the implementation of asset management as a holistic practice across its structure.A new structure has been formed under a strategic asset manager and the mandate has been given for the structure to implement asset management best practice. The strategic asset manager now ne eds to proceed with the implementation process. The process for the adoption of asset management within Rand Water follows the approach advocated by PAS55 with additional guidance from the IIMM. The process starts with the development of an asset management policy that is aligned with the strategic objectives of the organization. The policy then guides the development of an asset management strategy, which is a set of actions, to enable asset management within the organization.The strategy needs to be implemented in a manner that develops internal capacity in the organization to execute the asset management practices as a part of everyday business. A process of improvement management then needs to be adopted to ensure that the asset management capabilities are further developed and refined with time. The asset management strategy implementation will require substantial change management to raise the capability from awareness through to integration. The process is shown in the table below. | Asset Management Policy| Asset Management Strategy| Strategy Implementation| Improvement Management| What is it? | Broadly outlines how and why AM will be undertaken across the organisation as a whole. | Specifies actions to be undertaken to improve AM capability to achieve specific objectives. Implementation of the identified actions . | Continuous refinement of the strategy and implementation of revised actions. | Objective| Provides the organisational foundation and mandate to undertake AM in a structured and coordinated manner. | Develops a structured set of actions aimed at enabling AM within the organisation. | Develops internal capability to implement and sustain AM practices. | Refines AM capabilities through continuous structured improvement management. | Description| * Organizational context, importance of AM * Organizational vision and goals and AM vision and goals * AM policies underpinning AM goals * Key performance measures for policies incl. imeframes * AM re sponsibilities and relationships * AM integration with business processes| * Description of current practices * Description of required practices to achieve AM vision and goals * Identification of the gap between current practices and future vision * Identification and description of strategies to close the gaps in a structured manner| * Raising of awareness across the organization * Developing of technical understanding * Embedding of AM practices through application * Integration of AM practices to achieve multi-disciplinary AM benefits| * Optimisation of AM practices through refinement and enhancement * Innovation of new and best practices that deliver step changes rather than incremental change| 15. ASSET MANAGEMENT STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT The asset management strategy specifies the actions that need to be undertaken to develop, improve and embed asset management capacity within the organization in order to achieve the corporate objectives.The process of strategy development is to assess the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s asset management system by means of an asset management practices audit, which compares the organization's current asset management practices against the requirements of PAS 55 and international best practice. The audit is made against the asset management system components that comprise asset management within the organization. The identified best practice Ã¢â¬Å"gapsÃ¢â¬ are prioritized and programmed in an asset management strategy to drive improvement. Furthermore, the audit provides a benchmark to measure organizational improvement and maturity annually. 16. ASSET MANAGEMENT SYSTEM COMPONENTS The asset management system is a whole of life asset management framework that reflects the management and control level in the organization as well as the different stages of the asset lifecycle i. e. he system addresses the strategic, tactical and operational management of the organization as well as the planning, implementation and asset care phases o f the asset lifecycle. Note that the disposal stage is included under the asset care phase. The asset management system components illustrated below provide a high level structure for the strategy development. Each component should be reviewed in detail to determine the level of maturity of current practices, the best appropriate maturity level, and to define the actions required to achieve best practice. The components are shown in the figure below and described in greater detail in the text that follows.FIGURE PROVIDED SEPARATELY Figure 151: Asset Management System Components Strategic Management Components Asset Management Policy and Strategy An Asset Management Policy is a description of an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to Asset Management. It provides both the link between the overall organisational strategic plan and an effective Asset Management Plan, and also provides the start of the rationale that ultimately justifies every Asset Management activity the organisation under takes. An Asset Management Strategy documents the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s overall approach to managing physical assets. It describes how the Asset Management Policy is to be implemented.As such it needs to be closely aligned with that policy as well as linking to other associated higher level strategies (e. g. operational strategic plans etc. ) Risk Management Policy A Risk Management Policy is a description of an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to Risk Management. It addresses the management of risk between the strategic, tactical and operational level of management and the linkages between these levels. It is closely aligned to the Asset Management Policy. Statutory Compliance Organisations must be fully aware of the duties imposed under legal instruments for all of their activities and must ensure its systems and procedures fully comply with the requirements.The organisation should have a system for identifying the laws and regulations applying to all activities involved with physic al assets and to ensure its systems and procedures comply with the requirements. Organisational Alignment and Commitment Organizational alignment and commitment across the organization is essential for the successful implementation of asset management. The Asset Management Policy, Strategy, and Plans should be aligned with corporate objectives. The asset management strategy implementation should be overseen by a steering committee with representation by departments including finance, corporate, planning, maintenance, operations, and project management. Asset management information and plans should be widely available and used across the organization to inform strategic and tactical plans across the organization.A strong commitment to an asset management improvement process by senior executive management, backed by the availing of adequate resources to implement the process, has proved to be a significant determinant of asset management success and lead to the realisation of asset ma nagement benefits. Asset Management Structure and Responsibilities The definition of roles and responsibilities for the implementation of the Asset Management Strategy is necessary to ensure clarity of purpose and to manage interfaces between line functions. Asset management KPIs should strengthen the accountability towards the implementation of the strategy. Customer Service Level ManagementThe setting and management of Customer Service Levels have substantial influence on the Asset Management Plans, which have the objective of providing the desired level of service in the most cost-effective manner (IIMM). The setting of Customer Service Levels should be undertaken in a consultative basis with customers and should reflect customer expectations. Improvement Actions and Management of Change Improvement actions and management of change are the combined processes, systems and procedures in place in an organisation to specifically deal with corrective actions, preventive actions and co ntinuous improvement actions. Financing StrategyThe financing strategy should quantify the total cost of asset ownership and the funding needs for additional capacity, level of service changes, asset renewal, and maintenance and operations over a long term planning period (20 years). The impact on funding sources and tariff setting should be determined to manage the surplus/deficit and to maintain financial sustainability over the long term. Investment decision making should incorporate organizational risk and triple-bottom-line consequences in the analysis framework. Skills Enhancement and Management Skills Enhancement and Management refers to the processes utilised to manage personnel training and development, along with staff retention systems. Tactical Management Components Subgroup: Planning Demand ForecastingDemand forecasting is the estimation of the change in demand based on population and land use change within a long term planning horizon (20 years). Demand forecasts incor porate several demand influences including service level changes, pricing, customer types, and consumption trends. Several demand forecast scenarios are developed and associated risks are quantified. Failure Prediction (capacity) Capacity failure prediction is the evaluation of capacity against forecast demand to predict failure time and the associate risks thereof. Failure Prediction (condition) Condition failure prediction is the prediction of asset decay and the associated risks of asset deterioration over time along with the dentification of appropriate asset strategies to manage the risks. Strategic Maintenance Planning The Strategic Maintenance Plan documents the continuing suitability, adequacy, effectiveness and efficiency of the Asset Care function by addressing formal compliance audits results, performance against KPIs, incident results, progress against previous management reviews, and plans for improvement. Reliability Engineering ; RAM analysis Reliability, Availability , Maintainability (RAM) Analysis provides organisational risk based assessments to highlight which assets are providing optimised return on investment and are being administered effectively at lowest cost.It involves understanding the concept of the three critical factors and how each affects the other. RAM can be applied at any point in the project lifecycle from concept to operation. However, it is most cost-effective at the early detailed design stage when the required operating parameters are known, equipment designs/vendors have been selected and engineering feedback from the RAM study can still be effectively and efficiently incorporated into the overall design. Asset Lifecycle Analysis Life cycle analysis involves the analysis of all costs associated with owning an asset. It is the sum of all recurring and non-recurring costs over the full life span of an asset or system.It includes the purchase price, installation cost, operating costs, maintenance and upgrade costs and the salvage value at the end of ownership or its useful life. Optimised Decision Making Optimised Decision Making is the process of identifying and prioritising projects/interventions required to manage risks at optimal timing, along with multi-criteria prioritisation based on lifecycle cost and triple-bottom-line based consequence analysis. The decision making is integrated across service disciplines and functional areas to derive the optimal project/intervention program that results in the best investment for the organization. Investment AnalysisInvestment Analysis refers to the evaluation framework and financial analysis used to evaluate the viability of the investments and to inform investment decision making. Investment analysis includes financial modelling and the quantification of net present value, benefit-cost ratios, risk reduction benefits, societal benefits, etc. Asset Management Plan The Asset Management Plan informs the organization of how the assets will be managed over t he long term (20 years) along with a short term implementation plan (5 years). The Asset Management Plan highlights the changes in demand, service levels, and asset condition along with the risks that these pose to the organization.It quantifies the long term funding needs and constraints and explains how the funding will be prioritised between the competing needs. It provides a prioritised short term (5 year) project/intervention program for implementation. It also incorporates the asset management improvement plan, which guides the organization on the practices to improve over the short term. Subgroup: Implementation Lifecycle Design Optimisation Lifecycle Design Optimisation is the process of incorporating lifecycle analysis, maintenance strategy, and maintenance constraints into the design phase to ensure that infrastructure is designed in a manner that minimises the long term lifecycle cost of asset ownership. Operational Readiness and CommissioningOperational Readiness is a st ructured systemic process that is used to prepare for the project operational phase. It is used to ensure that new or modified assets or systems are able to commence operation in the desired and expected manner. It is an integrated, proactive, considered approach to projects that ensures that people are operationally ready, systems are operationally ready, and assets are operationally ready. Commissioning is an integral part of the Operational Readiness process that refers to the execution of the testing, dynamic verification and acceptance plans for the assets to ensure the asset has been delivered to the required quality and performance criteria. Equipment StandardisationEquipment Standardisation describes the continual improvement method of reducing the cost of inventory and maintenance, by reducing instances of machinery, materials or spare parts that are one-off or stand-alone compared to others in use at a site. When equipment is standardised, one suite of spare parts can be u sed, and training for personnel is reduced, which in turn reduces overall maintenance cost. Subgroup: Asset Care Maintenance Performance Management (KPIs) Performance metrics (KPIs) are measures of an organisation's activities and performance and enable maintenance performance to be monitored against specific targets. Asset StrategiesAsset Strategy Development is the process to ensure that appropriate maintenance activities are performed with optimum effectiveness and efficiency to allow an organisation to achieve its business objectives at the lowest asset lifecycle cost. Failure Analysis and Root Cause Mitigation Failure Analysis and Root Cause Mitigation is the identification of potential costly failures and mitigation of all possible root causes of such failures. Ã¢â¬Å"Apollo Root Cause AnalysisÃ¢â¬ is an event-based problem solving technique widely used as a leading practice to identify failure modes and effects on the process. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) are reliability based techniques and products that can be used to solve a wide range of reliability problems. Reliability Centred MaintenanceReliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) is a process that is used to determine what sort of maintenance needs to be carried out on any physical asset with a focus on preserving its system functions, rather than preserving the equipment. RCM is a logical, structured framework for determining the optimum mix of applicable and effective maintenance activities needed to sustain the desired level of operational reliability of systems and equipment while ensuring their safe and economical operation and support. External benchmarking Benchmarking is a continuous improvement tool that is used to achieve improved performance by measuring the organisation against other organisations that are identified as exhibiting leading practice worldwide. SustainabilitySustainability is the evaluation of the envi ronmental, economic and social impact of the assets and the extent to which the triple-bottom-line elements are incorporated in the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s practices. Loss Mapping and Analysis All organisations are working to get competitive returns from their investments in assets. The complexity in plants and equipment through process automation and technology has substantially increased the number of problems that can cause production problems. To identify the source of the problems which contribute to major losses is a very important criterion to prioritise the process improvement projects. Maintenance/Operations Integration Maintenance/Operations Integration is a management principle with derivative actions, and is designed to combine the organisational functions of theOperations and Maintenance groups in order to become more effective and efficient. Integration ensures that the human resources of both departments have a clear, common and collective purpose to improve the equipme nt performance, and subsequently the benefits to the business. Operational Risk Analysis (compliance, contingency plan, risk management) The Operational Risk Management (ORM) process is undertaken to identify and quantify risk exposure and then develop suitable strategies, plans and procedures to maximise its upside and minimise its downside exposures. Operational Management Components Subgroup: Planning Planning Data Collection (condition, usage, risk)Planning data collection refers to the collection of information for planning purposes, which usually includes condition, usage, and risk data amongst other data. This information typically covers the entire asset group and is used to identify projects/interventions that need to be implemented over the planning horizon. Planning Information Management (condition, usage, risk, GIS) Planning Information Management refers to application of systems to manage planning information. Due to the different nature of planning and maintenance dat a, planning data typically does not reside is a CMMS, but rather resides within a GIS and planning database. Linkages between systems are important to allow the transfer of data for planning and analysis. Subgroup: ImplementationMaterial and Contract Management (vendor reliability, material management) Vendor Reliability refers to the capacity and capability of a vendor (or group of vendors) to consistently supply goods and services to the client in a timely manner as per defined specifications and standards. Materials Management is the complete set of processes and procedures that are used to ensure that resources other than personnel, tools and equipment are readily available to support all maintenance activities. Subgroup: Asset Care Maintenance Information Mgmt (CMMS) Maintenance Information Management entails acquiring, organising, maintaining and retrieving maintenance information.A Computerised Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is a system to assist with the effective and efficient management of maintenance activities through the application of computer technology. It generally includes elements such as a Work Order system, as well as facilities for scheduling Routine Maintenance Tasks, and recording and storing Standard Jobs, Bills of Materials and Applications Parts Lists, and other associated features. Maintenance Identification and Prioritisation Maintenance Identification is the process of defining what needs to be done to an existing asset to either ensure it remains in a state whereby it can perform its stated function, or can be efficiently returned to such a state.Maintenance Prioritisation is the process of determining a ranking or rating for a defined amount of work, based on an objective assessment of the importance of the work, in terms of the impact failure of the asset would have. Asset Criticality can be incorporated during this prioritisation process. Preventative Maintenance (inspections, work management) Preventive Maintenance is t he systematic care, servicing and inspection of equipment for the purpose of maintaining it in serviceable condition and detecting and eliminating failure modes. The ultimate goal of doing preventive maintenance is to keep the equipment running to its required function and operational standard. Work management covers all procedures that are followed to ensure that maintenance work is carried out in an efficient and effective manner.Work execution procedures are usually enacted by maintenance supervisors or coordinators and apply to work being done under the authority of properly planned and scheduled work orders. Planning and Scheduling (budgeting, short and medium-term planning, scheduling) Maintenance planning and scheduling includes the budgeting, planning and scheduling of equipment maintenance strategies to ensure that activities are performed with optimum effectiveness and efficiency. Health, Safety and Environment Health Safety and Environmental (HSE) management encompasses t he systems and procedures that are adopted to reduce the risk of causing harm to people and the environment that may be associated with the way in which maintenance activities are carried out. Condition Based MaintenanceCondition Based Maintenance is an equipment maintenance strategy based on measuring the condition of equipment in order to assess whether it will fail during some future period, and then taking appropriate action to avoid the consequences of that failure. The condition of equipment could be monitored using Condition Monitoring, Statistical Process Control techniques, by monitoring equipment performance, or through the use of the Human Senses. The terms Condition Based Maintenance, On-Condition Maintenance and Predictive Maintenance can be used interchangeably. Autonomous Maintenance Autonomous Maintenance refers to the management routine and minor maintenance of equipment without the need or requirement for intervention from a dedicated maintenance team. It is the ru nning repairs and adjustments that can be performed by the operators, before, after and during the use of the machinery.To enable these tasks to be completed effectively, operators need to be trained in the types of adjustments and repairs they are expected to perform, and given a degree of ownership of the equipment. Autonomous maintenance relies heavily on training and education to be able to identify the difference between normal and abnormal operation of the equipment they are operating. Organizational Support Components Information Architecture and Business Process Information Architecture is the flow of information and defines where and whom will be updating various data fields to ensure accurate information and accountability as it flows through various systems (GIS, CMMS, etc. ) Information flow mapping and allocating responsibility for data management increases the quality of the information.Business Process mapping identifies the process of tasks and responsibilities for t he implementation of key processes in the business. 17. CONCLUSION This document provides a framework for the adoption of a structured approach to implement asset management best practice within Rand Water. The document clarifies the scope of asset management, identifies a quality framework to adopt, describes the high level structure and responsibilities, defines an improvement process, and defines the asset management system components that should be developed in the improvement process to implement a whole of life asset management approach within the organisation.The implementation process required to adopt and embed asset management practices in a structured manner is described in this document and is the recommended way forward for Rand Water. Annexure A:ASSET PORTFOLIOS The following table lists a comprehensive collection of Rand WaterÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Assets. The Assets of Rand Water can broadly be grouped into the following portfolios (in alphabetical order): Buildings and Property| Civil Structures| Pipelines and Servitudes| Electrical Equipment| Mechanical Equipment| Process Plants| Automation Equipment| Access control Air conditioning CarportsCCTVElectricsEngine Rooms Estates Farms Fencing Fire protection Furniture GardensHostels Houses Interior decorationIntruder detectionLandOffices Passive SecurityPavingPlant uildings SewageStoresWorkshops Encroachment | Balancing TanksBarrage structureBridgesCarbonation baysConditioning baysControl WorksCanal Engine RoomsFiltersForebayFlocculators OverflowsPlant structuresRailway sidingsReservoirsRoadsSediment tanksSumps| Air valvesBreak pressure tanksConnectionsCulvertsDeviationsElectrolysisFlow controlIn-line filtersInner liningsIsolation valvesJunctionsMeter chambersNon-return valvesOuter coatingsPipe manufacture plantPipelinesPipeline protectionPressure controlProtectionScour chambersScour valvesServitudesSurveyTunnelsValve chambersWater hammer systemsWater lossesEncroachment| BatteriesBattery chargersCabl ingControl desksControl panelsDistribution boardsEarthingElectricity supplyEmergency generatorsEnergy meteringEnergy managementHarmonic filtersHydro power LightingLightning protectionLV switchgearMimicsMinisubsMotor control centresMotorsMV switchgearPower factor correctionProtectionReticulationRing main unitsSubstationsTransformersUPSÃ¢â¬â¢sVSDÃ¢â¬â¢s / soft starters| ActuatorsBlowersCompressorsConveyorsCranesCrushersDesludge bridgesDust extractionGatesPipeworkPressure vesselsPumpsValvesNon return valvesSteelworkThickenersSump pumpsVehiclesEarth moving| AmmoniaCarbonationChlorineFerric ChlorideGAC filtrationLime burningLime slakingMembraneMilk of lime dosingOzonePoly ElectrolyteRWW treatmentSand filtrationSodium hypochloriteUltra violet lightChemical supplyChemical quality| ArchestraCommunicationControl CentresControl schemesFlood controlFlow meteringHuman Machine InterfacesInstrumentation PLCScadaInsql data historiansIndustrial networks Industrial serversIndustrial softwareSW c onfiguration controlTelemetryIntelligent control|
Saturday, September 28, 2019
In the past twenty years the United States school system has been accumulating a bit of criticism. Studies have shown that the United States has been lagging exponentially compared to almost all the industrialized countries. This specifically refers to Asian countries that are statistically blowing the U.S. out of the water. In his article Ã¢â¬Å"New Math-Science Study Rates U.S. Students Mediorce At BestÃ¢â¬ William S. Robinson decusses survey results after students from around the world have taken a science and math test.The survey results in the universal subject of math show us that the U.S. eighth graders have fallen behind, while the twelfth grade level showed only slight improvement.We would potentially look at these education systems as extremes of each other. Each education system being on the different side of the spectrum. Both systems having faults and advantages. Taking the positive aspects from both sides and merging them together, a harmonious education system could be established . In the article Ã¢â¬Å" Strengths, Weaknesses, and Lessons of Japanese EducationÃ¢â¬ James Fallows tells us that in an Asian classroom students will feel an incredible amount of pressure starting from grade school and up, while U.S. teachers are too afraid to raise the bar because of potential discouragement of the student(201). In Japan, University admissions as opposed to grades earned in university, determines what kind of career you can have in Japan. Japanese students will spend most of their time studying in cram schools, unlike American students who spend most of their time socializing. A negative of the Asian school system, is the conformity that must be upheld. This achieves better education because it becomes the Ã¢â¬Å"thing to doÃ¢â¬ . When everybody is on the same curriculum there is no other choice but to follow the herd. While conformity creates better math students, it demises the aspect of creativity and individuality. The U.S. places a much bigger emphasis on creativity and choice. Thus providing students with opportunities that help them learn about them selves, and develop original ideas. An important characteristic that the U.S. education system lacks, is the idea of effort being directly correlated to success. In her article Ã¢â¬Å" Why Are U.S. Kids Poor In MathÃ¢â¬ Barbara Vobejda says that the American andÃ Asian mothers have a diffrent view on what determines their childÃ¢â¬â¢s success in school. An American mother thinks that her childÃ¢â¬â¢s academic achievement comes from innate ability, while an Asian mother thinks that her childs academic achievement comes from hard work and effort. An Asian mother would demand her child spends hours after school doing homework and studying. An American mother would just say that her child is not good in their subject.Vobeja says that a study has shown that Asian students spend more time in their seats than American students do. American students were out of their seats 21 percent of time, compared to Chinese and Japanese students who were out of their seats 2 percent of the time. Though the American student may think that they work hard, we find that the Asian student is at a much greater level of pressure. As we saw in the previous passage, serious pressure is put on the Asian student. In further examination of the article Ã¢â¬Å"JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s School SystemÃ¢â¬ , a supporter of the catalytic pressure theme, we find many contrasts to the U.S. views of putting pressure on students . Japanese students attend school six days a week. The school year consists of 220 days compared to the 180 days in the U.S. A third grade Japanese school week consists of eight hours of Japanese, five of arithmetic, three of science, social studies and physical education, two hours of music and art. For an U.S. student this might seem like hell. Yet the only reason this might seem like to much pressure, is because we are judging their system with an ethnocentric point of view. Japanese students think itÃ¢â¬â¢s quite OK. Humans are a very dynamic and adept species. We always look at things from our conditioned point of view. Thus, if pressure is increased on the U.S. students, the only ones who would have any complaints are current students. Being dynamic and adept, they too would be able to fulfill the new requirements asked of them. The eastern ideas of pressure could be used as a catalyst for results in the U.S. While as much as we are in need of more pressure on the students, we must retain the creative individual factor at all costs. We are not machines that have identical downloaded brains. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"We Should Cherish our ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Freedom To ThinkÃ¢â¬ , Kie Ho provides a critical question. He asks, Ã¢â¬Å"If American education is so tragically inferior, why is it that this isÃ still the country of innovation?Ã¢â¬ Looking back at the regular Japanese school week, we find that not much attention is brought to music or art. Creativity forms individuality, expression of ideas, and self-fulfillment. This could ruin all the conformity and control of ideas in the Asian student. Our Asian friends could never have that happen now could they. Ho provides an example of an U.S. student taking a role of Lyndon Johnson and debating a student in the role of Ho Chi Minh. An Asian student would never be given a chance to look at things from a different point of view. In all their mathematical glory they have missed the essential human need to express individuality. Most likely that is done with intent. While many Americans yell and scream about their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s math abilities, they have overlooked the fact why most immigrants come here. This fact is freedom. Which would not be possible without all the creative outlets provided by our school system. In merging these two fundamental ideas of both of the education systems, many new positive effects are felt by the students. An increase of pressure to motivate and accelerate education. The development of ideas and creative outlets, which lead to self-discovery and formation of original and innovative ideas which, fuel our nation. This guarantees freedom and a mind to use it. Americans complain about the core subject of education. That will change with a harder curriculum and more emphasis being placed on effort. We will also continue providing our students with individuality. Asian education can also see positive effects from the development of choice and move away from conformity. The students who do cannot or will not participate in the hard curriculum will now have a choice to develop their creative side. These changes will be hard to make. U.S. students adjusting to a faster harder education. Asians might start to loose control of the masses. In the end it will be beneficial fo r both.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Midterm exam - Assignment Example The new constitution, of the Second Republic, established a strong Executive, and also a President elected through popular vote by universal male suffrage, instead of the National Assembly. In the election held on December 10-11, 1884, five candidates participated; they included Lois Napoleon, General Cavaignac, Lamartine, Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin, and Raspail. The election campaign of Napoleon appealed to the left and the right. His manifesto supported family, religion, property, and eternal basis of social order; in addition to providing more work, ensuring comfortable old age for workers, and introducing favorable industrial laws. The election results were announced on December 20, 1884 and Louis Napoleon won with 5,572,834 votes, 74.2 % of total votes cast. After the victory, he immediately moved to the Elysee Palace (Spitzer 36). Louis Napoleon became Napoleon III on December 2, 1852. Following official request by for the EmpireÃ¢â¬â¢s return, the Senate organized a referendum to be held on November 21-22, 1852, concerning making Napoleon emperor. 97% of voters voted in favor of the referendum, this represents 7,824,129 votes. Hence on December 2, 1852 the second republic ended and the Empire was restored. The referendum victory, therefore, introduced the Second French Empire; and the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s title changed to Emperor Napoleon III (Spitzer 40). The main priority of Emperor Napoleon III was modernizing the French economy, which was behind the economy of United Kingdom and some German states. Napoleon IIII wanted the government to have an active role in the improvement of the economy. He advocated for the government enhancing infrastructure necessary for economic growth. He ensured the rebuilding of central Paris; this rebuilding enhanced commercial innovation and expansion. Borne Marche, the first departmental store in Paris was opened din 1852. The Emperor opened the French market to
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Human Resources Management - Research Paper Example Then by knowing who needs the training, there is a significant assessment of the need of the participants of the training (p.181). By finding their prevailing potential or capacity, the actual design for training would be remarkably considered based on each of their actual and individual needs. In addition, by finding what subjects should the training cover is another important way on how to assess the need for training (p.181). In order for the entire training to be effective, it is appropriate to only include subjects that are essentials or highly needed. There are three categories of training methods that are widely used in human resource management which include presentation methods, hands-on methods, and group-building methods (p.189). Presentation methods are designed to be more educational for the purpose of acquiring substantial facts, ideas or information which could be obtained from lectures, DVDs and other relevant presentations. The good thing about these training methods is that individuals could personally learn from various forms of presentations different from hands-on and group building methods. For hands-on methods, the goal is to expose the participants or individuals to actual training programs such as role playing, simulations and on-the-job trainings. The difference found in these methods compared with the presentation methods is the occurrence of actual immersion in which there is a need to facilitate learning through concrete training activities so as to help enhance skills for instance. There are also actual ac tivities involved in group-building methods, but these are most likely about enhancing group or teamÃ¢â¬â¢s participation, to establish performance of the entire group or team. How to evaluate the success of a training program is another important consideration in the human resource management. Before anything else, it is important to include the idea that the associated goals of the training program should be
Introduction to business - Essay Example This simply means that although one of the objectives of the organization is the generation of profits, organizations must include other relevant goals that would be beneficial to other stakeholders: the employees, customers, suppliers, investors, government agencies, and to the society, as a whole. These goals could include ensuring that the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and production of products or services are consistent with the need to protect the environment and comply with quality standards imposed by government regulatory bodies. Likewise, it could also be indicative of ensuing Ã¢â¬Å"a satisfactory rate of return to investors, provide good salary, security and proper working condition to its employees, make available quality products at reasonable price to its consumers, maintain the environment properlyÃ¢â¬ (Social Responsibilities of Business 38). By doing all these, in return these various stakeholders would patronize the organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ product or services a nd thereby ensure their continued
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Corporate Governance - Research Paper Example Introduction The term corporate governance is employed to refer to the systems through which companies are controlled and directed. This is through the involvement of the market and regulatory mechanisms. It also encompasses the relationship that exists between the board, the management of the organization, stakeholders and shareholders that are involved with the organization. Corporate governance also involves the goals through which the company is governed (Jo & Harjoto, 2012, 58). One of the key interests of corporate governance includes the mitigation of conflicts that may arise among the stakeholders in the company. This involves ensuring that there is no disagreement in the agenda of the stakeholders in regards to policies, processes, laws, customs and institutions that have influence over how the company is managed. Corporate governance has been necessitated in recent times, with the wake of a number of high profile company collapses, with the principal cause being attributed to accounting fraud. This, therefore, made it necessary for corporate to come up with to avoid such occurrences. Principles of Corporate governance For corporate governance to be effectual, some principles were agreed upon as a framework for the practice. One of the principles is in regards to the treatment of shareholders. Corporate realized that how they treat their shareholders has a significant impact on their operations. Therefore, it is imperative for organizations to respect the shareholders liberties and assist them in employing those liberties (Norwani, Mohamad & Chek 2011, 210). This can be achieved by encouraging the shareholders to be proactive in the general summits, and through the establishment of a communication that is open and effective. Another principle includes organizations ensuring that the other stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests are addressed. This is because; it is the obligation of the corporate to ensure that the interests of these parties are addressed. Stak eholders may include employees, investors, the community, creditors, customers, suppliers and policy makers. Among the principles, the boardÃ¢â¬â¢s roles and responsibilities are also stipulated (Johnson, Moorman & Sorescu, 2009, 4755). The board has a critical function, which requires them to have sufficient skills that are essential in addressing challenges that may affect the corporate in its operations. Corporate governance ensures that the board is aware of their mandate. The board needs to be autonomous, committed and of an adequate size, to handle its mandate capably. It is crucial for the corporate management of an institution to be triumphant; there ought to be transparency in the Corporation. This is through the making public of the mandate of the board and the general management. This disclosure will ensure that there is accountability on the part of management, and the board to the stakeholders of the Corporation. I this case, procedures should be implemented to ensure the corporation safeguards the veracity in its finance reporting. It is also fundamental to make certain that there is an accurate and timely disclosure, to give the stakeholders a vivid representation of information regarding the corporate. These principles were formulated to ensure that
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Marketing and Segmentation Problem - Research Paper Example Therefore, it can be mentioned in a nutshell that the hospital caters to the general people with a wide range of medical facilities. Research A research on the consumers in the area surrounding the hospital would be carried out with the help of Value and Lifestyles (VALS2) and Potential Rating Index by Zip Market (PRIZM). VALS2 This tool for lifestyle analysis makes an endeavor to contour consumers by categorizing into three diverse orientation groups and they are principle oriented, action oriented and status oriented. Each of the categories is believed to be supported by two dimensions and they are resources as well as self-orientation. The orientation groups are then again sub-grouped into eight diverse lifestyle segments. These mentioned lifestyle segments are known as actualizers, fulfilleds or survivors, achievers, believers, experiencers, strivers, makers and strugglers. The medical facility or rather the hospital is assumed to be located in the United States (US) where the po pulation has been learnt to be alienated into three main consumer kinds as previously mentioned. The principle oriented individuals are the ones whose selection for services is presided over by their respective beliefs rather than their requirement for support from other individuals. The selections of the status oriented individuals are supposed to be guided by the support, action along with the views of the other individuals. The action oriented individuals are measured to be those who get stimulated by a desire for physical or even social form of activity, risk bearing and variety (Indira Gandhi National Open University, 2012). The believers and the fulfilleds have been stated to fall under the category of principle oriented individuals. The actualizers, achievers, strivers and strugglers are learnt to belong to the category of status oriented individuals. Lastly, the experiencers and the makers are clubbed in the category of action oriented individuals or segments. Therefore, the application of this particular model would effectively aid in segmenting the market for the needed kind of service (Indira Gandhi National Open University, 2012). PRIZM The other tool for assessing the lifestyle of the individuals for the intended service is the PRIZM. The intention of this mentioned tool is recognized to be the assessment of the geographic regions along with associating them with the consumption pattern. This form of assessment is supposed to be founded on the assertion that lifestyle as well as consumption remains principally guided by the demographic rudiments. An imperative step with regard to this form of assessment is the ascertainment of the proper base definition in order to appropriately match up with the accurate household base (Scarborough Research, 2012). Market Segmentation The target segment or rather the kind of individuals targeted for the medical facility or the hospital would be the principle oriented individuals and the status oriented individual s. The initial category of individuals are learnt to be quite well educated individuals who are either engaged with professional occupations or are retired. This implies that the age group can be ascertained from middle to higher that is from 40 to above 65 years of age. This particular segment would be the appropriate choice as the target patients for the intended medical facility owing to their age group. The individuals belonging
Monday, September 23, 2019
Speech Course Reflection Paper - Essay Example Thus, rational speech gains instant approval and favor irrespective of the cultural diversity present in the audience. Meticulous development, planning and analysis of speech/communication are necessary steps to gain attention and trust of the listeners. Truth cannot be told in a simple straight forward manner and in a flat tone. It requires careful analysis of situation and audience. Moreover, meticulous selection of words is required to deliver the Ã¢â¬Ëright messageÃ¢â¬â¢ to the intended audience. Blunt truths can damage personal reputation and can hinder the process of understanding on the part of listener. They tend to obstruct the speech of speaker and listeners act according to prejudged criteria (pessimistic perception). Once, I took a stance in a challenging situation and I was perceived antagonist instead of a person who stood by truth. Through, persuasiveness, special occasion speaking and informative speaking lessons I learnt that establishing a proactive stance is necessary to deliver intended purpose of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s speech. Furthermore, defensive, judgmental, skeptical and aggressive tone conveys a wrong impression even if the person is stating true facts. Moreover, slanted and biased questions intricate the possibility of rationality at all and it is highly significant to keep the questions clear and concise, so one can establish good impression and gains immediate listening attention. Controversial truths or facts before delivery need to be concealed or mixed with many aspects like appreciation, acknowledgement and open-ended hypothesis for the audience in a neutral and pleasant tone. Hence, it is extremely necessary to avoid trite sentiments through subtle use of language and to initially analyze the type of audience one intends to communicate with. Ethnical specific agendas cannot be understood aptly in a diverse cultural audience. They are often misunderstood and give a
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Sherlock Holmes the original Essay This is so that he is able to solve the crimes without getting too involved. If he became a friend of one of the people involved with a crime it would be difficult to look on them from a distance and work the crime out. All detectives are shown to have an accomplice aiding them in their work. Holmes has Watson, Morse has Lewis, Poirot has Hastings, and Jonathan Creek has . She helps Creek in his detective work. She deducts and works things out only one level down from Creek, yet she will never be the one to find he final answer. This is like Lewis, who never solves the crime. The difference here is that Lewis doesnt give Morse much help in his detective work. He generally lets Morse do all the thinking and waits for Morse to tell him whats going on at the end. Although Hastings gives Poirot a bit of help he never comes up with the full answers or solves the mysteries. Poirot, Morse and Creek are very similar to Holmes in this way because Watson maybe gives him a few ideas, but will never be the one to solve the crime, by pulling all the clues and deductions together. Women are not of much interest to Holmes. He never has a relationship with a woman. The only time a woman has ever been of any interest to Holmes, is Irene Adler, who is known to him as the woman. He would never have a relationship with her though. Morse, however, has had many relationships with women. He is obviously interested in them as he says, She seemed rather attractive to me. He also comes across as interested in women because he asks the attractive woman in his choir out to a film and notices when she is not at choir. In one episode of Inspector Morse, he accuses a woman of a crime. When he realises she didnt do it she begins to cry so he passes her a tissue. This shows he is thinking about her feelings. He then gives her a hug, which is very unusual for a detective. What makes Morse and Holmes similar here is that Morses relationships never work out for one reason or another. This shows he is incapable of making a relationship with the opposite sex work. From looking at and studying these detectives, it is possible to say that the majority of fictional detectives have been based on Sherlock Holmes. He has a unique method of detection, which other writers have used as a characteristic for their detectives. Morse, Creek, Frost, Poirot and Holmes all use deduction as their way of solving the crimes. Each detective feels that the senses mislead and that guesswork and theorising before data is often wrong. This shows they all think in the same way. Each detective has that same sarcasm in their humour, saying that their problems are pretty and charming. Some detectives speak at least two languages and often mix the two. Showing they are bright and intellectual. Each detective likes classical music and is involved with it in some way i. e. playing an instrument or singing in a choir. Morse has the same flaws as Holmes; Morse drinks, Holmes takes drugs. Morse cannot keep up a relationship, Holmes never starts one. Morse in unorganised and likewise is Homes. Each detective is very much involved in his work. These characteristics, idiosyncrasies and methods of detection are certain to have originated from somewhere. Inspector Frost was created in 19 , Cracker was created in 19 , Jonathan Creek was created in the 1990s, Inspector Morse was created in the 19 , Hercule Poirot was created in the 1930s, and Sherlock Holmes was created in the late 1890s. Through knowing when each detective was created and studying each one in detail, it is obvious that Sherlock Holmes certainly was the first fictional detective. This allowed future authors/creators to build on his very strong characteristics and although many of Holmes character traits are used they have built on his character and sometimes developed it. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Conan Doyle section.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Analysing Post Apartheid Gender Inequality In South Africa Politics Essay Despite the South African constitutions commitment to equal rights for women, the demand for gender equality is incompatible with the preservation of traditional authority in the post-apartheid era. Discuss. Women in South Africa have the most clearly spelt out legal rights in the whole of Africa and when looking at the newly formed constitution the situation for women in South Africa seems to have made a dramatic move in the right direction. After all the constitution prohibits any form of discrimination on the basis of not only gender but sexual orientation. And although it validates both gender equality and the institutions of traditional authority, if they come into direct conflict it is gender equality that will prevail. The national parliament has also moved from being 141st in the world, in regards to the percentage of women members, pre-1994 to 7th post-1994.Ã [i]Ã This signals a new era in South Africa, and is mainly down to the ANCs undoubted dedication to gender equality and the introduction of its quota in national elections. However despite the leaps forward in gender equality the fight for womens rights is far from over and it is in the rural areas that the discrimination is most severely felt by women. The South African constitution may be one of the most gender sensitive in the world but this did not come about uncontested by the traditional authorities,Ã [ii]Ã who believed the introduction of gender equality would lead to the end of some African traditions, such as, Lobola,Ã Ã and in the long term their very institutions. Traditional authorities are seen to be the biggest obstacle facing the women in rural South Africa. This essay will discuss the history of traditional authorities and how the colonial and apartheid eras have influenced and shaped them, the affect they have had of on the development of womens rights and their relevance to understanding the rural womens position. Also the broader tension felt between the principle of elected representation and the continuation of non-electe d chiefs that has implications for the position of women and the country as a whole. And finally a brief look at the question; why did the ANC make concessions to the chiefs at the time of transition. But ultimately that the ANC-led governments belief that they can recognise the institution of traditional leaders while at same time upholding the constitutions principles of gender equality and representative democracy is completely contradictory. Today in post-1994 South Africa the term traditional authorities is an all-encompassing term in which it refers to chiefs of all different ranks and that have jurisdiction over rural people.Ã [iii]Ã But this concept of traditional authority has, over the years, has been reshaped and moulded to not only benefit the white ruling governments that have dominated South Africas history but also the patriarchal systems. The two main institutions that were reconstructed were chieftainship and customary law. In the colonial era they were used as a cheap form of administration, later to ensure the successful use of the migrant labour system. In the apartheid era they were used in the states attempt to divide the African population into their ethnic groups so that they would be easier to control. Customary law may be seen by some as a long African tradition but others, as illustrated by Cherryl Walker, believe that customary law is not only sexually discriminatory in the extreme but also a construct of the past hundred years.Ã [iv]Ã The chief was also reinvented to become dependent on approval from the centre, for any chiefs that were perceived to be disloyal to the dominant white state, were removed and replaced by more compliant individuals. During this time the most valuable power the chief possessed was the power to allocate land, and it remains so today. This power was beneficial to the apartheid state but has caused massive complications for the reconstruction of rural areas under the new ANC-led government,Ã [v]Ã and has been hugely detrimental to the population of rural women and gender equality. The issue of land allocation was one of the largest issues to be resolved facing the new post-apartheid government, and remains so to this day. For the first ten years the new ANC-led government has been very vague on the issue of traditional authorities and land allocation. Traditional authorities took advantage of this indecisiveness and used to their benefit. Things were further complicated by the fact that the constitution recognised the institution of traditional leaders but failed to specify the roles, functions and powers of said authorities. This resulted in massive confusion for the people on the ground and when elected councillors were introduced in 1995/96, the lack of a clear definition led to tension between the newly elected councillors and the traditional authorities, as neither were clear as to what role they would play and considered the other institution to illegitimate. When the ANC came to power and the new democratic constitution was enforced many South Africans believed that the newly elected councillors would take over the function of land allocation, the government indicated that it would become the responsibility of the Traditional rural councils (TRC) however the old apartheid laws were effectively still in place, government officials still used, with a few adjustments, the apartheid procedure and did not recognise the elected councillors as having power to allocate land, as a result by 2000, (the end of the transition period) the rural people had become dissatisfied with the rural councillors.Ã [vi]Ã It wasnt until the combination of the Traditional Leadership and Framework ActÃ Ã (framework act) in 2003 and the Communal Land Rights ActÃ Ã 2004, that the government finally clarified the role of traditional authorities. The combination of these two acts drew criticism from a huge range of civil society organisations, ranging from gender activists to land activists, such as, the programme for Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS) and the National Land Committee (NLC) they considered these new traditional councils to be, as Ntsebeza illustrates, a retreat from democracy and the Communal Land Rights Act was an attempt to revive a defunct apartheid institution which was above all extremely discriminatory of women.Ã [vii]Ã The reason that the traditional authorities being in control of land allocation is such bad news for women is because of their continuing use of customary law.Ã Ã Despite the fact that gender equality should, according to the constitution, prevai l over institutions of traditional authorities, in practice customary law and practice tend to win in matters marriage, divorce and property ownership (with most chiefs still unwilling to allocate land to women) resulting in deeply patriarchal decisions that lessen womens rights to those of their husbands, fathers or even sons.Ã [viii]Ã The principle of customary law has even been upheld in the Supreme Court rulings (2000) despite what is clearly stated in the constitution.Ã [ix]Ã This elevation of hereditary chieftainship to a privileged and protected position within local government seriously compromises rural womens access to and influence on local governments.Ã [x]Ã The framework act has created councils that are dominated by traditional authorities whilst the Communal Land Rights Act has given these structures extraordinary powers, combined they have effectively given the traditional authorities back the powers that they had enjoyed in the apartheid era under the Ba ntu Authorities Act.Ã [xi]Ã Through these acts the national government has majorly failed the women in rural areas in relation to land and womens right over its allocation and use, in effect the government has failed to uphold the very principles in the constitution of equality all they have done is further entrench the concept of male-domination in both peoples minds and the institutions in rural South Africa. One of the major reasons behind the increase in dominance in the traditional authorities in rural areas is due to the lack of a significant civil society movement in particular a powerful Womens movement post-1994 to push for equality. Before the first democratic elections in South Africa, the general womens movement was much stronger. Successfully contesting the traditional authorities proposals to have customary law exempt from the gender equality clauseÃ [xii]Ã and later defeating their bid to have customary law entrenched itself. The womens organisations also managed to successfully mobilise itself after being sidelined in the constitutional negotiation process to form the Womens National Coalition in 1992, with the aim to draft a charter for womens rights, that would be included or at least consulted when the constitution was drawn up. However this coalition didnt last long after the charter was formalised, the ANC womens league become suspicious and believed that other part ies would use the coalition to better themselves and not women as a whole, and as a result dropped out. This left the womens movement in tatters.Ã [xiii]Ã There was a further blow to the movement when the ANC was elected to government as many women that were at the forefront of the womens movements became members of parliament on ANC tickets. Leaving the majority of the womens organisations without key players and leaders. The situation was worse in rural areas for these organisations due to the fact they were predominantly urban based and were nowhere near as organised as the traditional authorities. As a result it was far more difficult for rural women to come together against the repressive nature of the Traditional Authorities as they had no organisation or figurehead to unite under. The traditional nature of rural South Africa is also felt within the rural local councils, where the number of women is actually lower than that of the national parliament. This goes against the western norm that women usually do better at the local level.Ã [xiv]Ã Gotez and Hassim illustrate two main reasons for this, firstly that traditional patriarchies can be more intense and immediate in their repressive effect on womens engagement at local level compared to the national and secondly that womens movements capacity to support women in local politics and help develop gender equality policy platforms can be fragmented by decentralisation.Ã [xv]Ã The lack of an effective womens movement post-1994, has had a negative effect on the development of gender equality. Another problem women face in rural councils is that they are set up to accommodate a male councillors way of life and not a womans who still have to uphold their traditional responsibilities for the home and family, C onnell argues that this holds dangerous potential for fostering exclusivity in political leadership.Ã [xvi]Ã Many believe that there are too many meetings that run late and seem to discuss the same issues over and over, which is just not practical for women councillors who have a family and a home to look after alongside their job as councillors. Unfortunately due to the smaller number of women in local councils than in the national parliament they are unable to ensure that matters such as hours of sitting and childcare are addressed, instead their concerns are ridiculed as womens problems by the male-dominated councils.Ã [xvii]Ã These issues enforce the perceptions that women are not capable of serving as councillors and damage the potential contribution of women councillors. Problems like this show just how deeply entrenched male-domination still is in South Africa,Ã [xviii]Ã and not just in rural areas but on the national scale. The male domination on real power is st ill very evident. The ANCs history towards Traditional Authorities is very important in understanding why the act the way they do towards them. The ANC was formed in 1912 and many of its founding members were traditional authorities who opposed to the Union of South Africa. However as time when on the ANC became a more radical movement and combined with pressure from its youth League and its communist allies the ANC split in two when it came to what to do with Traditional authorities today; the first being pro traditional authorities providing that they were critical of government policy. The second, who were clearly influenced by their communist allies, argued that the institution of traditional authorities belong to a previous feudal era and should be replaced by a more democratic institution.Ã [xix]Ã One of the main questions to be looked at is why the ANC has made so many concessions to the traditional authorities at the time of transition at the expense of gender equality, in spite of their obvious commitment to equality, in particular gender equality, both in the constitution and their own party politics (i.e. the election quota). The ANC has always been split and extremely ambiguous in its views and policy towards the institution of traditional authority. It is also widely accepted that tampering with the power of chiefs threatens to create a mass amount of political problems.Ã [xx]Ã Because of this most politicians feel the issue is best left alone. There are a number of possible reasons this. The first being that the ANC is fundamentally urban based and has always been considered to be very weak in rural areas, alongside that it has never had a coherent programme to build alternative democratic structures in the rural areas to try and combat this problem.Ã [xxi]Ã And as a result the ANC has been and remains depended on traditional authorities to be their main representation in rural areas. This originated when the party was in exile but has continued to the present day, which makes it difficult for the ANC to alienate them. The ANC has to also remember that it has to take peoples commitment to custom, culture and tradition seriously if it wants keep its support in rural areas and if any program of rural construction is to succeed.Ã [xxii]Ã The ANC cannot just rush in and dismantle peoples beliefs and way of life as a large number of people still believe in and support traditional authorities and what they stand for, it will be long and slow process that will have to be carried out with the upmost care, Ismail  illustrates this point well that traditional leaders cannot be abolished overnight without causing some political disequilibrium among the indigenous people especially in rural areas.Ã [xxiii]Ã The ANC has also faced direct pressure from the traditional authorities themselves, both through the Inkatha freedom Party (IFP), the Congress of Traditional Leaders in South AfricaÃ Ã (CONTRALESA) and the right-wing Zulu nationalist chief Buthelezi, who is recruiting chiefs who opposed the ANC during the anti-apartheid era.Ã [xxiv]Ã The ANC feels it must maintain a good relationship with CONTRALESA so that it wont lose the support of the traditional authorities who are members and their followers, who the ANC consider to be important voter blocks. Ultimately the ANC had a choice to make; to take the Traditional Authorities head on in order for womens rights to not only be written in the constitution but actually be put into practice and be experienced by women throughout south African society, or to appease the Traditional Authorities and allow for gender inequality to continue despite this going against the very constitution they wish to uphold. Unfortunately (for womens rights) the ANC has seemed to favour the latter option. But the very fact that the ANC has need to make a choice between the two is evidence of the incompatibility of Traditional Authorities and the concept of gender equality. One thing that the womens movement must remember is that getting women into parliament is not a guarantee that she will help promote gender equality as not all women have feminist interests and will most likely represent their parties interests not that of women,Ã [xxv]Ã this can be partly due to the party-list system used in South Africa, which means if you want to stay high on the list and remain in parliament you have to tow the party line. There is also the problem that women just dont feel comfortable enough to raise the question of the prolonged gender inequality within South African society, this is generally down to the traditional view upheld by many South Africans. Friedman actually argues that by putting women on committees when they are not comfortable with being in a position of authority may actually be counterproductive for and long-term strategy for empowering women.Ã [xxvi]Ã This can be down to the inexperience and uncertainty of women councillors which may l ead to them being unable to effectively articulate their opinions and concerns, leading to the reinforcement of not only the opinion that women are not cut out to be involved in politics but also the very concept of inequality. This is shown very clearly by Goetz and Hassim with their study in Temba in 2000, in which women councillors had made no concrete suggestions except to second motions.Ã [xxvii]Ã According to the women in Temba this is because they feel intimidated by the men who still hold the traditional values of women being inferior. men in the council laugh and interrupt our contributions.Ã [xxviii]Ã This is a problem that is widely known about to the majority of ANC members but still little is being done to address the issue. It is clear that if gender equality is to be a success then it is not just the traditional institutions that need to change, it is the peoples views about gender as well. Men need to accept women as their equals and women need to be empowere d so that they can be confident enough so that they can stand up for their opinions, concerns and rights. Traditional authorities in their current state are most definitely incompatible with the demand for gender equality. However as customs and traditions are never set in stone but a product of a complex and dynamic history of contestation, co-optation, reconstruction and invention,Ã [xxix]Ã traditional authorities could, if they learn to incorporate gender equality and accept the legitimate role of the democratically elected local bodies, in theory be a legitimate part of the South African democracy. However if they continue to push of their unelected body to have increased power and refuse to recognise the legitimacy of rural elected bodies and that women have equal status then they should not have a place in a democratic South Africa, as the very nature of traditional authorities is undemocratic. It is up to the government to follow through with their promise of equality, and particularly for this case gender equality by either removing them completely (which will inevitably be u npopular with a large proportion of the population especial in rural areas) or alternatively force them to become more democratic. In the current state it is unlikely that the government will do so as it could very well play into the hands of their opposition. Therefore there is a desperate need for a strong womens movement to not only put pressure on the government but to also mobilise the women of South Africa to stand up for their constitutional right of equality.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Plan for Employees in Small Business Dairy store Introduction Our business is small business type in the New Zealand most of the business is small type and our business name is Kumars dairy. In the dairy store we can buy the so many different products in the one roof. As small operators, they cannot offer bulk discounts as compare to supermarket. To run this business they hire the staff. As I owner in this company I have to hire manager, customer service, check out service, accounting and other staff. Location- I open my Kumars diary shop near the summit drive, Mt Albert because in this place there is no any dairy store in this location and we can attract so many people. Service and product- In our Kumars dairy we can provide different product like milk, eggs, dairy products, perishables, newspapers, lotto and so on. We can also give the customer service as well as top up mobile and At hop card. Reason for this business- I open this business because in this store we can buy the anything in the one roof. To help this business we can make new friends and also make more money. I agree in this era so many people prefer super market I know but when they forget to buy something from supermarket then they prefer dairy store rather then again visit to the super market. In this small business we can easily make more money. Capability- As I manage this dairy store I have ability to choose the staff which person we need this company and which place. I also manager the all staff. I also trained the staff under my supervision. I also know about the new technology and how to use this technology. Setup the business- To open this business firstly I need to calculate the budget to open the dairy store, if I have dont sufficient fund to open my store then I go to the bank and apply the business loan to build our new business as well as I also find the place for lease and suppliers. Opening-closing (timing) Days Mon Tues Wed Thus Fri Sat Sun Opening and closing 7:00 AM- 9:00 PM 7:00 AM- 9:00PM 7:00 AM- 9:00 PM 7:00 AM- 9:00 PM 7:00 AM- 9:00 PM 7:00 AM- 9:00 PM 10:00 AM- 5:00 PM Working hour of employees Fulltime and part-time worker Part time- 20 hour Full time 40 hour Casual worker-12 hour Roster (timing) Staff Mon Tues Wed Thus Fri Sat Sun owner 9 toÃâÃ 9 9 to 9 9 to 9 9 to 9 9 to 9 9 to 9 Manager 7 to 7 7 to 7 8 to 9 7 to 9 7 to 9 10 to 5 Labour (full time) 7 to 9 7 to 9 7 to 9 7 to 9 7 to 9 7 to 9 Labour (Part time) 7 to 9 10 to 5 Responsibility and Accountability Staff Responsibility Accountability Owner(kartikey) Give the pay in time Dont dominate other staff members Manager(Hootz) Manager responsibilities are mange the roaster and supervise the entire staff member. Manager Accountabilities do not dominate other workers and always provide the good customer service. Fulltime(Amrit) Mange the checkout service and other work Give the customer service Part-time(lovish) Fill the all stuff Be in time Holidays and leave wages Holidays are: New Years Day January, Sunday 1st (observed Tuesday 3rd) Day after New Years Day January, Monday 2nd Wellington Anniversary January, Monday 23rd Auckland Anniversary January, Monday 30th Nelson Anniversary January, Monday 30th Waitangi Day February, Monday 6th Taranaki Anniversary March, Monday 13th Otago Anniversary March, Monday 20th Daylight Saving ends April, Sunday 2nd Good Friday April, Friday 14th Easter Monday April, Monday 17th Easter Tuesday April, Tuesday 18th Southland Anniversary April, Tuesday 18th ANZAC Day April, Tuesday 25th Queens Birthday June, Monday 5th Daylight Saving starts September, Sunday 24th South Canterbury Anniversary September, Monday 25th Hawkes Bay Anniversary October, Friday 20th Labour Day October, Monday 23rd Marlborough Anniversary October, Monday 30th Canterbury Anniversary November, Friday 17th Chatham Islands Anniversary November, Monday 27th Westland Anniversary December, Monday 4th Christmas Day December, Monday 25th Boxing Day December, Tuesday 26th (holiday) Hours and wages Type of minimum wage Per hour 8 hour day 40 hour week 80 hour fortnight Adult $15.25 $122.00 $610.00 $1,220.00 Starting-out $12.20 $97.60 $488.00 $976.00 Training $12.20 $97.60 $488.00 $976.00 (wages ) Leaves and Equal Wages Rise to pay for equivalent work is the idea of work rights that people in a similar work environment be given equivalent pay. It is most regularly utilized as a part of the setting of sexual separation, in connection to the sex pay crevice. Level with pay identifies with the full scope of installments and advantages, including essential pay, non-pay installments, rewards and remittances. A few nations have moved quicker than others in tending to the issue. Since President John F. Kennedy marked the Equal Pay Act of 1963, it has been unlawful in the United States to pay men and ladies working in a similar place diverse pay rates for comparable work. Ã Ã Health and safetyÃâÃ Equal Employment Opportunities Gender equality In this statement company cannot discrimination toward the staff members because in this type of business all staff members are same. In the New Zealand business nobody discriminated in the level of wages because they have right gender equality. Collective agreement Collective employment agreements are agreements between employers and registered unions that cover employees in the employers workplace. Collective employment agreements must: Be in composing Be marked by businesses and unions that are gatherings to the understanding Have a scope condition expressing the work that the understanding spreads Incorporate a plain dialect clarification of how to deal with any business relationship issues, including the 90-day time frame For bringing an individual grievance Incorporate a statement expressing how the understanding can be changed Incorporate an expiry date or express an occasion that will mean the assertion lapses Incorporate an arrangement that follows the Holidays Act 2003 necessity for workers to be paid in any event time and a half For work on open occasions Much of the time, incorporate an arrangement expressing how workers will be secured if the business is sold, exchanged or contracted out. (collective) Individual agreement Every representative must have a composed work assention. The assention can be either an individual understanding or an aggregate assention. An singular business understanding doesnt need to be marked by the business and worker yet it ought to be. There are a few things that must be in your work assention and different things that are ordinarily in business understandings however dont need to be, for example, your notice period. Minimum rights, (for example, the lowest pay permitted by law and yearly occasions) are legitimate prerequisites and apply regardless of the possibility that theyre not in the business understanding. Your business assention cant decrease these or exchange them off for different things. Employers are required to keep a duplicate of the work assention. The business must keep a proposed assention regardless of the possibility that the representative hasnt marked it. Workers are qualified for a duplicate of their concurrence on demand. The sort of business understanding a worker is on may rely on upon regardless of whether they are a union part. It is the representatives decision whether they join a union, and a business cant undo impact their decision. On the off chance that a worker joins a union, they will be secured by the important aggregate assention, if there is on. (https://employment.govt.nz) Employment disputes Indeed, even the best-run business must be set up to manage work question. A representative may have a conflict with a manager, question an execution assessment or trust that organization arrangements are as a rule unjustifiably upheld. While a few nations have work courts to determine such debate, in the United States, bosses must discover approaches to determine these issues outside the courts. Effectively arranging a work debate brings about all sides feeling they have been tuned in to and judged reasonably. Negotiation Transaction is by all accounts the favoured basic leadership system when representatives are looking for independently custom fitted arrangements, for example, changes in accordance with travel and work routines. Mediation With the help of Mediation, both sides in a question take a seat with an outsider facilitator to examine the circumstance and attempt to achieve an answer. The facilitator, or middle person, has no interest in the result of the issue, and stays unbiased is called Mediation. Adjudication Adjudication is a legal term that refers to the process of hearing and settling a case. It usually represents the final judgment or pronouncement in a case that determines the required course of action in reference to the issue presented. Adjudication can also refer to the process of validating an insurance claim as well as a decree in the bankruptcy process between the defendant and the creditors. (www.investopedia.com)Follow us: Investopedia on Facebook ALLOCATION AND EVALUATION OF WORK Evaluation are generally done on more than one occasion a year, however you might need to plan a registration with new workers prior, to ensure theyre settling in well. Setting up an evaluation You should to: give your representative time to get ready by booking the meeting no less than two or three weeks ahead of time book a private meeting place where you wont be hindered request that your representative get ready reactions to inquiries like: how well they believe theyre doing in their employment which parts of their employment theyre doing admirably and where they think they could progress regardless of whether they require any gear or preparing to help in their part how they feel about their occupation and the organization what they would change on the off chance that they could? do your own readiness survey: your representatives set of working responsibilities your notes from past audits execution pointers (deals or generation figures, letters from fulfilled clients, or different measurements). get criticism from different workers, partners or key clients set up your representative for extreme inquiries in the event that theyre not performing, caution them that youll have to talk about why certain objectives or targets werent met and welcome them to go to the meeting with conceivable arrangements. (www.business.govt.nz) Responsibilities of Manager The manager responsibilities in the business are very important because without manager business cannot be run. Manager is the root of organization. He set the all roaster and manage the all staff member as well as he give the order to all the staff what you do or not today work. ÃâÃ (http://thebizmanagementguide.com/responsibilities-of-a-manager-in-business-management/) Responsibilities of Employees Employees responsibilities are be on time, good customer service last but not a least he should be prepare know about the first aid box. Always good behaviour with customers and staff fellows. (http://www.libertyshoes.com/aboutus/social-responsibility) Job description of dairy (careercoverletter)