Wednesday, October 30, 2019

International Trade Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

International Trade Law - Essay Example The researcher of this essay describes the development of the customs unions and free trade areas that adheres to Article XXIV of GATT that also generates a production effect that results in amore efficient use of world resources. Eliminating the tariff barriers means being able to compete against lower-cost and more efficient producers. Inefficient domestic producers drop out of the market resulting in a decline in home output. Although a customs union may add to world welfare by way of trade creation, its trade diversification effect generally implies a welfare loss. The formation of a customs union will increase the welfare of its members as well as the rest of the world, if the positive trade creation more that offsets the negative trade diversion effect. In extreme cases where the union is made up of the entire world, there can only exist trade creation and not trade diversion. The scope of trade diversion is smaller when the customs union’s common external tariff is lowe r. The transition for a Market-Oriented Economy, that was describes in the essay requires giving up ownership of privately owned properties and removing central planning systems for decent living standards. Therefore, to maintain healthy market economies would require: establishment of sound fiscal and monetary policies; removing price controls; opening economies to competitive market forces; establishing private property rights and a legal system to protect those rights; and reducing government involvement in the economy for an open trade.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Power Reforms Essay Example for Free

Power Reforms Essay Electricity is central to achieving economic, social and environmental objectives of sustainable human development. In fact it has become essential ingredient for improving the quality of life and its absence is usually associated with poverty and poor quality of life. India has the fifth largest generation capacity in the world with an installed capacity of 173,626 MW as in March 2011. The power sector added record conventional capacities of 12,160 MW during 2010-11. However, despite the Indian power sector having shown substantial growth during the post-independence era, the sector has been ailing from serious functional problems during the past few decades. In 2010-11, India faced power deficit of 10 per cent and peak demand shortage of 13.3 per cent. In this backdrop, Power sector reforms were first initiated in India in 1992 by the Ministry of Power (MoP) to invite private investments in power generation to bridge the demand-supply gap. However, private investments failed to yield much benefit due to serious deficiencies and losses in electricity distribution in most of the State Electricity Boards (SEBs). Post 2001, Reforms were oriented around: 1. Unbundling of the state electricity boards.  2. Corporatization of generation, transmission and distribution sector 3. Setting up of independent central and state electricity regulatory commissions. 4. Passing of the Electricity Act, 2003 which mandates licensee-free thermal generation, non-discriminatory open access of the transmission system and gradual implementation of open access in the distribution system which will pave way for creation of power market in India. In the power sector reform process, Distribution segment was identified as the key area for reform for putting the sector on the right track. Distribution Reforms involve System up-gradation, Loss reduction, Theft control, Consumer orientation, Commercialization and adoption of IT. In this direction, the Government launched the Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (APDRP) during the 10th Five Year Plan (2002-07) for the strengthening of Sub – Transmission and Distribution network and reduction in ATC losses. Continuing its support for power distribution reforms, the Government launched the Restructured APDRP (R-APDRP) in the 11th Five Year Plan (2007-12) with revised terms and conditions. Thus, Two key issues emerge as far as performance and reforms of any distribution company are concerned:- 1. Revenue realization which means reduction of ATC Losses 2. Consumer satisfaction The above factors are mutually reinforcing whereby improvement in one leads to the same for other as well. Technology has emerged as a major enabler of any reform process and this holds true for power sector reforms as well. New technological initiatives have been taken by many states especially in the distribution sector which have aided performance of the distribution companies therein. This paper seeks to throw light on how the above two key issues are being addressed through the use of e-governance mechanisms in KESCO i.e. Kanpur Electricity Supply Company Ltd. Kanpur Electricity Supply Company Ltd., formerly KESA, was restructured as a company on 14 January 2000 under U.P. Electricity reform act 1999. This company is registered for distribution of electricity in the area under Kanpur City (Urban). KESCo is serving around 700 bulk consumers and 4,35,000 other consumers of domestic, commercial and power categories connected to grid through 66 no. 33 KV substations and 340 no. 11 KV feeders after receiving electricity from 7 transmission substation of 220 KV and 132 KV of U.P. Power Transmission Corporation Ltd. It has a peak demand of around 500 MW and annual turnover of around 1000 crores. Coming back to the above two objectives, the situation before the initiatives were launched in KESCO and measures taken therein are as follows: 1. Revenue Realization The biggest challenge of the power sector as far as revenue realization is concerned is the high Aggregate Technical Commercial (ATC) losses. The ATC losses are presently in the range of 18% to 62% in various states in India. The major portion of losses are due to theft and pilferage, which is estimated at about Rs.20,000 crore annually. Apart from rampant theft, the distribution sector is beset with poor billing (only 55%) and collection (only 41%) efficiency in almost in all States. It is estimated that 1% reduction in TD losses would generate savings of over Rs.700 to Rs.800 crores. The line diagram demonstrated below is well explanatory of facts mentioned above:- For KESCO, As far as indicators of Revenue realization are concerned it has high ATC losses to the tune of 29%(March 2011) .Apart from this, other statistics are also not very encouraging with an average turnout of 65% . There was no end to end tracking of theft checking and raids, revenue assessment and realization therein. Not only that, even for billed but non-paying consumers, there was no accurate record of disconnections done and subsequent action thereon for such consumers. Apart from that many consumers were still having defective /mechanical meters installed at their premises, and thus being billed on average basis. There was no mechanism to have a daily tracking of meter replacement work and advices of meters were taking upto3-4 months. Three key fields of revenue realization in above flowchart i.e. Theft and improper metering, collection deficiency, increasing customer base have been targeted through unique initiatives in KESCO. First In this backdrop is a unique , only of its kind in the country, mobile phone based tracking system by the name of M-Drishti introduced in KESCO to ensure end to end tracking of in- field revenue oriented activities: 1. Raids 2. Meter Replacement 3. Disconnections 4. Section 138 Under M-Drishti, 2G internet services have been activated on the official mobile numbers of all distribution officials right from JEs and Assistant Engineers to Chief Engineer. Separate User Id and Passwords have been created for them and they will log in the Mobile M-Drishti interface and fill in details of whatever activities they undertake in field. Screenshot of the mobile phones for activity options is as shown:- So whenever there is a meter checking or katiya raid, a brief report is filled on the spot and sent via phone to the central server. Similarly for any disconnection done against electricity dues or FIR lodged under section 138 of Electricity Supply Act, the information of action taken on spot has to be submitted then and there for addition in the central database. On the server end once the information is collected, the updation is done by the concerned division. So for raid tracking, once revenue assessment and compounding amount at the field level has been entered, it can be edited and information of final assessment done at division, realization therein, Action taken in terms of issuance of notices under section3 and 5, final amount realized etc, can be done by the concerned division. Similar holds true for disconnections done, amount realized therein, action taken in case of non realization etc. For meter replacement a daily report of meters replaced whether defective/mechanical/otherwise is available and is available for linking with online advice. The software generates various MIS reports whereby day/month /JE/Division wise performance with respect to above four activities can be monitored.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Comparing Poems Salome, Hitcher, On My First Sonne and The Man He Kille

Comparing Poems Salome, Hitcher, On My First Sonne and The Man He Killed The poems, Salome, Hitcher, On My First Sonne and The Man He Killed all have similar themes. The menacing and threatening ideas that the poets used are all based around death. However, each poem has a different perspective on the word with different motives and emotions. The Man He Killed is about a man who talks of the experience he had of shooting someone and the regrets he has for it. He feels guilty, as he has no conceivable explanation for shooting the man. He talks of the similarities he and his foe had such as 'He thought he'd 'list, perhaps, Off hand like - just as I.' The use of hesitation and repetition show the threatening side of the story. It is almost as if he himself is trying to construct an image in his mind as not to make himself look or feel guilty or censurable. The use of colloquialism makes the image even more menacing as we do not understand greatly of this man. Originally, it could be perceived as an old man who regrets his actions in the past. It however, could also be seen as a man who enjoyed killing but must come up with an excuse to the reasons for killing him. 'My foe of course he was, that's clear enough, although.' The poem "Hitcher" has a character that expresses violence in a completely different manner. The poem is a monologue where the speaker casually admits to possibly murdering an innocent hitchhiker. The speaker tells us that he has been taking time off work - faking illness and not answering his phone. Being threatened with the sack, he goes in to work again and gets a lift to his hired car. As he drives out of L... ...he spot. Both of the poems are confusing and surreal as Hitcher is about the idea of jealousness compared to Salome, which is about the idea of hatred. Both The Man He Killed and On My First Sonne are menacing in a different way. They both are about guilt and empathy. The Man he Killed is a dramatic monologue of a man confessing to murder whereas On My First Sonne is an elegy to his Son. In On My First Sonne the man is desperate for the reason why his son was taken and feels pain and rage. When compared to The Man He Killed, he is looking for the reason for why he shot him but feels neither pain nor anger. All the poems show menacing and threatening ideas but are not all based around violence. The poets use technical methods to hide a story. They do this by using repetition of words, hesitations and enjambment.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Apathy and Addiction in William Gibsons Neuromancer Essay -- Neuroman

Apathy and Addiction in Neuromancer       In the postmodern world of William Gibson's Neuromancer, nature is dead, and the world is run by the logic of the corporate machine. Confronted by a reality that is stark, barren, and metallic, and the hopelessness that this reality engenders, the postmodern protagonist, like Case, often immerses himself or herself in an alternate form of reality that is offered in the form of addiction (to virtual reality or drugs, for example), addictions that are made possible by the same society that makes an escape desirable. Such addictions are logical products of the post-modern capitalist society because they perpetuate the steadfast power of the corporation by allowing would-be dissidents an escape from reality, thereby preventing successful rebellion and maintaining the pervasive societal apathy necessary to allow the corporation to dominate undeterred. Case, as the addictive anti-hero, is a product of this stifling cycle of apathy. Lacking the motivation or drive to insti gate any true change in his reality, he avoids the unpleasant realities of his world by entering into the altered reality of addiction.    In the reality of the postmodern world, where nature is gone and has been replaced by technology, where the world and humankind have become fused with the machine, and the existence of morality and reality are uncertain, it is difficult to find hope for a better existence or motivation to attempt to change one's existence. Addiction then becomes a logical avenue of escape from these bleak circumstances--not affecting reality, but transforming it into something bearable. The addictions that Case turns to allow him to escape from the hard reality of his life th... ...e Fiction, and Some Comics. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan UP, 1994.    Gibson, William. Neuromancer. New York: Ace-Berkeley, 1984. ---. Interview with Larry McCaffrey. Storming the Reality Studio. Larry McCaffrey, ed. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1992. 263-285.    Grant, Glenn. "Transcendence Through Detournement in William Gibson's Neuromancer." Science Fiction Studies. 17 (1990). 41-49.    Hollinger, Veronica. "Cybernetic Deconstruction." Storming the Reality Studio. Larry McCaffrey, ed. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1992.    Jameson, Frederick. "Postmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism" New Left Review. 146 (July-August 1984) Rpt in Storming the Reality Studio. Larry McCaffrey, ed. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1992.    Slusser, George. "Literary MTV." Storming the Reality Studio. Larry McCaffrey, ed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1992.   

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Blood Diamond Essay

In history, it was on 1866 that the first diamond was officially discovered and in the South Africa. Hope Town, South Africa claimed that the first dazzling gems were found in their place. At the early times, South African people’s way of existence was through agriculture. The whole evolution and the development of the contemporary Industrial South Africa have begun with the discovery of this diamonds in the Kimberley area. The discovery of the diamonds was said to be the most intense, vivid and the brightest spot in the South Africa’s economic history in the mid-to-late 1800s. The actual stones are millions of years old and were brought to the earth’s surface through volcanic eruptions of molten rock. The diamond makes up kimberlite or the primary deposit along with alluvial deposits, also known as secondary deposits. The results of erosion from the primary deposit are those that are commonly found in rivers or any watercourse that are along the shoreline. Diamond mining has become an advantage to South Africa and elsewhere in the African continent. On the other hand, this valuable gem had become a source of horror and becomes a dreadful alarm, terrorizing the nations such as Sierra Leone, Angola, as well in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Blood diamond also known as the conflict diamond, the dirty diamond and the war diamond is the diamond which can be mined and excavated in a war zone and be sold. The control over the diamond mines has become linked to the bloody civil wars filled with abuses, hostility, resentment and violence. Blood diamond also known as the conflict diamonds are from areas wherein the recognized government is being opposed. This diamonds are all used to support and finance all kinds of the military actions in opposition to those governments. In a universal point of view, diamonds are valued and are symbols of love as well as elegance and wealth of the beholder. But blood diamonds are actually be implicated with hate, violence and destructions. In several African nations diamond has become the means to power. Because diamonds are transferable, undetectable, easily obscured it lends themselves to smuggling, corruption, a reason to terrorized millions of innocent civilians and financing some of the world’s brutal terrorist. It is said that most of the African warlords uses blood diamonds in order to finance wars. It had been recorded that thousands of people had been forced by the armies to search or mine diamonds. Another sad fact is that the reward of theses people of the hard work of mining diamonds was more or less a mere cup of rice per day. During the civil war, part of the trade of the blood diamonds, people of Sierra Leone were maltreated by rebels, some had also lost there hands, arms and other body parts in the hands of the rebels. In 1998, the United Nations forbid countries to diamonds from Angola. It can be said that it was the first resolution made by the United Nations regarding the support received by rebels through the blood diamonds. In 1990, it was reported that the percentage of the illicit diamond trade had fallen to around 1%. The very first blood diamond that had been found can be tracked down to the year 1866 near Kimberley in Africa. Today, millions of people are employed in mining diamonds across the Sub Saharan Africa because of the gems value and quality. Diamonds travels pick up today-from the mine up to the market place and finally to the hand of the people and nation who are enthusiast and extreme to pay big amount of money and riches just to have such gem. Diamonds are representation of different kinds of images from love and passion to disaster, catastrophe, rivalry, battle and war. The most interesting about diamonds that is also common to all is that all diamonds had travelled a course that is rough-shorn and also, every piece has its own fascinating and interesting story. References Bakhtiar, R. (2001). Diamonds lure wealth, conflict to african nations. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from http://cnnstudentnews. cnn. com/2001/fyi/news/11/22/diamond. history/index. htm Cahill, P. (no date). A diamond’s journey begins. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from http://www. msnbc. msn. com/id/15842523/

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Flaw of the Brady Bill essays

The Flaw of the Brady Bill essays The federal Brady Law created an instant background check system meant to track the records of everyone prohibited from possessing firearms: convicted felons, people under a domestic violence restraining order, illegal aliens, drug addicts, dishonorably discharged military personnel, fugitives from justice and certain mentally ill people. The Brady Bill, imposed in February 1994, has been successful of what it was supposed to do. The Bill restricts mentally ill people from getting handguns, but medical records are kept secret, and there is no way of telling who is getting the guns. Is the Brady Bill working like it was planned? A priest and a parishioner were shot dead during church service in New York. Fr Lawrence Penzes, 50, had just finished his homily at Our Lady of Peace Church at Lynbrook on Long Island, when a gunman burst in and opened fire. Doctors say Fr Lawrence probably died at the altar. The other victim was Eileen Tosner, 73, a Lynbrook resident who attended Mass every morning. The suspect was Peter J Troy, 34. He was charged with two counts of second-degree murder and one count of attempted murder. The police said he has a record of psychiatric illness. (Independent Catholic Bergin, March 2002) Scott Harlan Thorpe, 40, of Smartville was a client of the outpatient mental health clinic where he started shooting just before noon Wednesday, killing two people and wounding a third, said Nevada County Sheriff Keith Royal. Thorpe then drove to a restaurant in near Grass Valley, 50 miles northeast of Sacramento, and shot and killed the manager and wounded a cook because he thought the restaurant was poisoning him, Royal said. The accused killer was undergoing monthly mental health counseling for his agoraphobia, his fear of being in public places, said Gary Dalbey, a neighbor who lived across the road from Thorpe in rural Smartville. (The Californian NC times Associated Press 1/12/01) ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Electromagnetics essays

Electromagnetics essays Electromagnetism defined as magnetism produced by an electric current. In other words it is the electricity part of what holds ourselves and every bit of matter in the universe together. This source of universal glue is found within atoms themselves. As the name sounds, there are two different forces within electromagnetism - the electric force and the magnetic force. Before the early part of the last century, scientist studied electricity and magnetism as different sciences. No one knew the connection between them. Electromagnetism was found almost by accident, that a flow of electric current (a movement of electrical charge) creates a magnetic force to use the words of Jack R. White, author of The hidden World of Forces. I will first explain the magnetic force in electromagnetism. Nearly 900 years ago, the Chinese discovered the natural permanent magnet - lodestone or magnetite. After playing around with this rock they discovered that when floating on a piece of wood it would always point itself north. From this they then created a magnetic compass. To the Chinese in that time, magnetic force seemed to be magic, but in the twentieth century we use magnetic fields everyday. In such things as the refrigerator, the washing machine, the dryer, and the vacuum cleaner all have electric motors. The magnetic force can be created many different ways but the two main ones are: Ferromagnetism - caused by the orientation direction of certain kinds of atoms. Electromagnetism - caused by passing an electric current through a conductor such as metal wire Both of these magnetic fields, once created, is exactly the same. Electromagnetic Radiation by definition is the transmission of energy in the form of waves having both an electric and a magnetic component. It is impossible for a wave with just one or the other to exist. The most common forms o ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Effect of Life Changes On Stress Related Illness -Psychology Essay

The Effect of Life Changes On Stress Related Illness -Psychology Essay Free Online Research Papers The Effect of Life Changes On Stress Related Illness -Psychology Essay Holmes and Rahe intended to find a link between the changes in some one’s life and them becoming stressed and consequently ill, so both the links between life changes and stress, and then stress and illness. The last thing they wanted to do was to determine the severity of a life change, and thus predict how ill you may become. Some of the procedures that the two men undertook included checking patient’s medical records to find 43 life changes that were common during the months prior to the illness, then asked roughly 400 people to rate how stressful each event was in relation to getting married which was given a rating of 50, this then led to them creating there SRRS (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and finally, some patients they asked were already ill and were asked to calculate their SRRS totals in the few earlier months, and the reverse, some people found their SRRS scores and were then monitored for illness. They found that there was a correlation of higher SRRS scores and more likely to become ill. The percentage was roughly 50% likely to become ill if your score was over 200 and 80% if more than 300. There are unfortunately a couple of weaknesses about this theory. Some of them include the fact that positive and negative changes were both counted alike, but this could be a mistake as positive changes may be more enjoyable and not contributing to the illness in any way. And another weakness is cultural relativism, as some things that we may find a negative change and find to be stressful, may be the complete opposite for other cultures, and thus it may not help towards and illness. Finally it was found by Kanner, that a more accurate way of using this theory was to measure changes by daily minor hassles, such as getting stuck in a traffic jam or missing a bus etc. These weaknesses are all quite major factors, even though the SRRS and related research is still in common use today. Research Papers on The Effect of Life Changes On Stress Related Illness -Psychology EssayArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)The Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseThree Concepts of PsychodynamicResearch Process Part OneStandardized TestingLifes What IfsInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyRelationship between Media Coverage and Social and

Saturday, October 19, 2019

David Christopher Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

David Christopher - Case Study Example If this time is also computed as work hours for the week, then they will have extra 30 effective hours and 3 non-effective hours. Thus in total, the week load hours for the surgeons is 77 hours in which 7 hours is considered non-effective-lunch hour. As explained in the initial part of this paper, one surgeon should work for 77 hours in a week combining everything. However, in the scheduled timetable for the two doctors, A and B, the time taken by the doctors computed comes to 343 hours. If this is compared to the time taken by one doctor in a week as the standard time stipulates then you will find that it is five times the figure. Given then that we have only two doctors in the clinic, there is a deficiency of three more doctors in the hospital and surely, if the hospital need doctors reinforcement of three more. This is the case of the complimentary needs, if the hospital has taken the step to reduce the workload of the doctors, it will only be successful if the put into place the facilities that would engage the doctors concurrently. If this is not done, the doctors will only be interchanging and utilizing the same time to attend to the patients. This would mean that if there are more patients, they cannot be attended to due to inadequacy of the facilities. This will ensure that the quality of work is not compromised given the sensitivity of the work they do. These changes will also limit the movement from one patient to the other and the stress involved. This move will tremendously improve the efficiency given that the hospital in experiencing influx of more patients. I consider the effective 10 hours working time for the doctors rather tedious. In this regard, would recommend that they even employ more doctors such that they work on rotational basis. In this case, if a doctor is to undertake operation on Monday,

Friday, October 18, 2019

Media Education in Elementary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Media Education in Elementary - Essay Example The students should be capacitated to read media messages and also create their own media messages. I definitely agree with Bill Bigelow that advertisements to a very large extent promote wrong perceptions. They make the viewer very uncomfortable by threatening the esteem of the viewer who start believing in the false claims and overlook the actual product. Advertisements are designed with only one rationale- maximum profit to the company. Therefore, they make all sorts of false claims to attract the viewer. However, a viewer with sufficient knowledge of semiotics can never be deceived. This is because semiotics help the viewer unfold the actual meanings hidden in the ads. I liked his approach of teaching global studies and the one in which students wrote about the effects of ads on their personality. The newly emerged interest in the field of masculinity study has undoubtedly offered a variety of genres like magazines, journals, albums, videos, ads etc. However I would like to menti on the not-so-good effects of this growing research- firstly, the potential psychologically damaging effects of violent ads on young adolescent boys. Secondly, the well toned attractive body of male models threatens the self esteem of the male audience.

Health care system Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Health care system - Research Paper Example A simple majority vote allows the bill to move to senate, and the same procedure is repeated. A simple majority vote is sufficient to pass the bill through this stage. The final stage includes an assessment of the bill by the conference committee that compares resultant bill versions from the two stages. Finally, the bill returns to the senate and the House for approval. After the approval the bill is printed and delivered to the president to veto or sign it in to law (United States House of Representatives, 2012). The passage of bills into laws does not however, only include the political class. In addition to the politicians, other special groups such as consumer groups, lobbyists and other stakeholders often take part indirectly in the legislative process. These groups often take part by engaging in advocacy processes. This involves stating and identifying issues, gathering information, mobilizing people, seeking resources, creating alliances, networking, seeking media support, co ntacting the government and coercing legislators to support the bills. In a nut shell, such teams work to ensure that the bill is passed into law (Michael, 2012). The passage of the Affordable Care Act is a good example of legislations that received considerable support from consumer groups, lobbyists and other stakeholders. ... On the other hand, republicans, insurance companies and conservatives were opposed to the bill. Notably, various advocacy groups engaged in pushing legislators to pass the bill. In addition, they engaged in various activities within the advocacy framework such as sensitizing the public and gathering research information on the effects of the bill. The supportive advocacy groups included the â€Å"American Association of Retired Persons† (AARP), â€Å"National Association for the Advancement of Colored People† (NAACP), â€Å"American Medical Association† (AMA), and the â€Å"American Osteopathic Association† (AOA) among many others (Roy, 2012; SurgiStrategies, 2012: Hughes, 2010). 2. Discuss the expanding role of public health services in today's environment in terms of wellness, prevention, and bioterrorism Primary Healthcare (PHC) denotes professional healthcare delivered by practice nurses and general practitioners. PHC covers a wide range of preventive and health services, including screening, disease prevention, counseling and education. It also concerns issues of health access enhancement, environment and lifestyle changes. Primary healthcare is important in defining the quality of life and health of a population because it intervenes in the health sustenance process earlier before the development of diseases or conditions that favor diseases (Academy Health, 2009). PHC plays a significant role in educating the public on how to develop better health within communities by educating them on environmental issues and preventive matters. The fact that PHC intervenes before the occurrence of diseases makes it important in the healthcare

Thursday, October 17, 2019


SESSION LONG PROJECT MODULE 4 Union Organizing (USAA INSURANCE COMPANY) - Essay Example Now only around 16% of the overall labour forces across industries tend to be unionised (Lawler). The insurance industry, in the year 2008, only around 3% of the insurance workers are part of union contracts in comparison to over 14% of the employees in the private industry (Statistics). Considering the above statistics, it is evident that unionisation is not wide spread within the industry and here the overall impact of unions is relatively low. In the case of USAA, the company does not face any issues of unionization and hence there is a smoother and effective decision making process as a whole. USAA to a great extent has proved to be among the few companies which are independent and not interdependent as most insurance companies. The trends in the industry have little or no impact on USAA (Lawler). The company has been able to effectively work towards developing and improvising its products and overall position in the markets with a competitive edge that the company is focused on the military people and their families. USAA is impacted by a few of the federal government legislations and this impact the overall insurance industry and the daily procedures and practices.

Reading reflection 4 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reading reflection 4 - Essay Example Apparently, the author’s story with all the painful sentiments in it reminds me of young distant relatives and significant acquaintances in broken families who have gone in and out of jail as though there exists no cure for their ill behavior. When Rios expressed â€Å"I wanted to understand why and how these officers would ignore certain major crimes and at the same time arrest so many residents for such minor infractions†, I realize that the problem with youth may never obtain remedy unless the society and the government change the way their treat it. My personal observations of reality agree to the narrative of the author and his findings of the problematic approach to ‘criminalization’. Rios himself is a living proof that each young individual deserves the chance to hope or acquire a positive view of life and be transformed accordingly as long as proper care is granted instead of shame, exclusion, punishment, and incarceration. Punitive efforts, I suppose, may only work to some extent but the root trouble requires abolition of ‘youth control complex’ and sincere affection for the youth at rough times. Analyzing what the reading chapter communicates regarding ‘Images of Women’, I do find it quite reasonable to establish agreement on points which support the principle that the prevailing notion on the inferiority of woman, which dates back to ancient myths, ought to be eradicated totally for the sake of relieving discourse on gender inequality, especially in reference to stereotypes. However, by state of nature, the general roles that are inevitably played due to woman’s sexuality define the character of a woman as necessarily different from that of man and this is something which occurs beyond the weak judgment of society. Indeed we have the right to defend a feminine cause particularly when it comes to issues emerging out of violence or crime against women, nevertheless, we must become

Wednesday, October 16, 2019


SESSION LONG PROJECT MODULE 4 Union Organizing (USAA INSURANCE COMPANY) - Essay Example Now only around 16% of the overall labour forces across industries tend to be unionised (Lawler). The insurance industry, in the year 2008, only around 3% of the insurance workers are part of union contracts in comparison to over 14% of the employees in the private industry (Statistics). Considering the above statistics, it is evident that unionisation is not wide spread within the industry and here the overall impact of unions is relatively low. In the case of USAA, the company does not face any issues of unionization and hence there is a smoother and effective decision making process as a whole. USAA to a great extent has proved to be among the few companies which are independent and not interdependent as most insurance companies. The trends in the industry have little or no impact on USAA (Lawler). The company has been able to effectively work towards developing and improvising its products and overall position in the markets with a competitive edge that the company is focused on the military people and their families. USAA is impacted by a few of the federal government legislations and this impact the overall insurance industry and the daily procedures and practices.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Call to Action Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Call to Action - Essay Example porating communities, public and private sectors as well as families aimed at changing the negative notion about illness and obesity to a positive one peddled by alteration of national conversation with particular focus being healthy and fitness. The identified news article is the Public Health report Journal published in July-August 2010. It is traced from the PMC (PMC2882598) regarded as US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. The report has been a vocal tool based on call to action proactive strategy. The initiative assigned specific roles to different institution and individuals. It is inspired by the need to reduce overweight and obesity based on promotion of exercise across the board. The ‘Exercise Medicine Initiative’ being a multinational and multi-organizational, is embedded on promotion of physical activities as the pillars upon which treatment and prevention of obesity and overweight are pegged. It culminated into immediate exercised-based actions spearheaded by close interactions amongst clinicians and patients. The report culminated into beneficial linkages between fitness professionals, the public and clinicians presenting avenues for instructions aimed at ensuring active and healthy individuals. Actions thus emerged to proactively advocate for exercise as the new medicine for obesity. With respect to communities, schools and workplaces, physical activities have been promoted to ensure well-being and increased health stocks. Besides, policy makers have also refocused on physical fitness-attached policies (Kazaks, 2013, p.122). This has also extended to clinicians as well as fitness professionals who have been subsequently incorporated exercise in their interaction with patients and clients. Media has remained the centerpiece in mobilizing the public to be educated and empowered via physical exercise consultations and counselling. Websites have been developed to sensitize people and patients on the pros attached to this

Neolithic development Essay Example for Free

Neolithic development Essay Neolithic development is characterized by the first agricultural revolution, when people moved from hunting gathering to agriculture and settlement. They developed tools for farming, pottery, spinning, and weaving. 2. The Hebrew is chosen by their God to go to the Promised Land. The Hebrew covenant with their god is characterized by the Ten Commandments that they have to follow throughout their lives. The Talmud is a set of discussions regarding Jewish laws, ethics, customs and history and is held important in Rabbinic Judaism. The Hebrews came to Palestine because some parts of it were defined as part of the Promised Land or Canaan. 3. It was Ahmose I who reunified Egypt in the 8th century by conquest and expulsion of the Hykos and reassertion of Egypt’s power over Nubia and Canaan. 4. It was the Sumerian people who invented taxation in order to make taxation easier. Sumerian scribes are record keepers, which are usually for the records of taxation. Mesopotamia was generally polytheistic, or the belief in many gods. These gods are the ones which provided them whatever they needed to survive. With the harsh environment of the Middle East, these people adapted laws that would punish offenders severely so as to avoid repetition of crimes. Egyptian and Mesopotamian religions differ with the gods they rule and the characteristics of these gods. 5. After Solomon’s death, the Hebrew state became separated, as the ten northern tribes revolted and successfully seceded to create their own kingdoms. 6. The Battle of Kadesh marked the first international peace treaty ever made, and it was between Egyptians and the Hittites. 7. Assyrians maintained political cohesion and military preparedness because they all followed only one rule, and that is of their King. 8. The Magi is a group of people from Media who were known for their religious and funerary practices of the people of ancient Persia. Zend-avesta refers to the interpretation of the Avesta or the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism in the Avestan language. Zoroaster taught religion and philosophy, about the universe and the struggle between truths and lies. Ahriman is basically the demon in Zoroastrianism and Ahura Mazda is the god. Satraps are the governors of Median and Persian empires. 9. The weaknesses of the human condition can be overcome by not overindulging or by following a simple life. Attachment and craving can be ceased by following the eightfold path. Nirvana is the state of being of a person wherein he is free from suffering and the cycle of being reborn. Human beings, like all things are impermanent, and there is no constant self. Human existence can be associated with suffering. 10. Jains preach that by cultivating a person’s own personal wisdom and control, he can achieve spiritual development. According to the Bhagavad Gita, the human condition is temporary and can still transcend to a supreme being. Dharma is the duty of a person that he must fulfill. Upanishads teach about the universal spirit and the individual soul and how both asserts an identity in an individual. Here, ascetism is characterized by doing away with wants and desires and following a life away from human indulgence. 11. Zhou China boasted of an organized medical system wherein physicians have specialties. Zhou was different in the aspect of government because it became feudal. Mandate of heaven means that the rulers are legitimately blessed by the heavens, and if the heaven would be displeased, the mandate would be revoked. 12. Yao, Shun, and Yu are the holy and virtuous mythical rulers of China who divided it into its regions. According to Confucius, the family is the basic unit of the society. A just and peaceful society would be obtained if people follow the rules. Mutual obligation would only be evident in the family, of parent and child and of husband and wife. 13. Yin and yang are the two opposing forces in any phenomenon. They are at the same time complimentary, and this is the basis of the system of correspondence in the Chinese philosophy and study of science. Daoism teaches reverence for nature, as it is a way of life. Han Feizi taught Legalism, wherein the ruler should be the one that controls the state. This is based on the concepts of his position of power, certain techniques and laws. Sima quan is a scribe of emperor Wu who made detailed biographies of Royal affairs. Tang is known as the period of golden age for arts and literature, as they called for perfection in one’s skills if they ever wished to pass the examinations of the empire. 14. Geography affected the development of Greece because it is surrounded by other areas. This made Greece a melting pot of intellectuals though this made them vulnerable to the advances of invaders. Hoplites are the soldiers of Ancient Greek, while Polis is the city state itself. Agora on the other hand, is an open place of assembly for the Greeks. Women in Athens are revered and treated highly while women in Sparta are treated inferior to the males. Messenian helots were mistreated and humiliated, and a Spartan can do anything he desire without fear of punishment to a Messenian helot. Greek’s defeat of Persia boosted their confidence and has set forward to more conquests. 15. Sophists taught philosophy and rhetoric. Socrates taught using the Socratic Method wherein you have to ask a series of questions in order to learn. He taught politics, philosophy, ethics, and many more. Socrates was executed because of his pursuit of virtue and truth, and he has praised Sparta which is the rival of Athens. Women were given more importance in the public affairs in the Hellenistic society. Solon was the founding father of the Athenian polis. Greek drama originated from Greek tragedy, wherein performances were made in various festivities. Epicurus advocated for a life without pain and with the pursuit of pleasure. 16. Mystery religion restricted to those who underwent certain secret rites or process. Greek religion is highly based on what the current ruler believes in, and the people would just follow suit. Philip II unified Greek by conquering the lands and using a great destructive army to threaten enemies to submission. The consequence of Alexander’s conquest of Macedonia is that many people aspired for his power, and when he died, the empire was divided. 17. The Bactrian camel was important because it was the only means of travel that could withstand the long arduous trade route for the Chinese. Hans used advance technologies, like cast iron and steel. Han cities were advanced with efficient agriculture and iron industry. In order to solve the poverty among peasantry, some rich Han people were stripped of their land and was given to the peasants for them to work on. The Hans invent Hydraulic powered hammer for agriculture and iron sector and winnowing machine for agriculture. Emperor Wu expanded the Chinese territory, nearly doubling its size. Buddhism in these countries aimed to resolve the problems in a simpler way of life. Korean Buddhism made variations to it because of its inconsistencies. Shinto is a Japanese religion that was native of the country and was considered once as the state religion of Japan.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Causes and Symptoms

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Causes and Symptoms Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in the Reproductive Woman: An Epidemiological Approach Abstract One of the most prevalent disorders among women with reproductive age is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Though the etiology of this syndrome is unknown, it can be diagnosed on the basis of three cardinal characteristics. This paper defines the issue along with a brief background and its significance. It also explores the prevalence and incidence rate worldwide and especially in Pakistan. Moreover, it will enlighten the major risk factors and long term concerns which have made life of women miserable. A review of treatment which includes pharmacological and non-pharmacological ways that is diet and exercises will be highlighted. Furthermore, it provides recommendation at individual, community, institutional, national and government level. It also explores the need of future researches among women with PCOS. By approaching all these aspects, women can combat with PCOS and reduce forthcoming morbidities. Women of all ages experience multiple health issues. Particularly, women during her reproductive years encounter gynecological and endocrine disorders that exasperate their lives. Among all disorders, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy. PCOS was referred as Stein-Leventhal Syndrome after Irving Stein and Micheal Leventhal, who first described it in 1935 (KINZA). However, record of PCOS dates back from atavistic era. Hippocrates, Soranus of Ephesus and Moises Maimonides identified women with oligomenorrhea, sterile conditions, masculine and healthy appearance which suggests PCOS (Azziz, Dumessic, Goodarzi, 2011). According to National Institute of Health Conference (1990), â€Å"Women are defined to have PCOS if they have chronic anovulation and evidence of androgen excess for which there is no other cause† (Guzick, 2004, p. 181). The diagnostic criteria’s for PCOS are convened by the National Institute of Health in 1992, the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine i.e. Rotterdam criterion in 2004 and the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society in 2006. However, a Rotterdam criterion is widely used. According to Rotterdam criterion, presence of any two cardinal features is sufficient to diagnose a woman with PCOS. These features include oligomenorrhea or anovulation, clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. This criterion also defines the morphology of polycystic ovaries i.e. â€Å"the presence of 12 or more follicles measuring between 2 and 9 mm in diameter and/or an increased ovarian volume of greater than 10 cm3† (Sirmans Pate, 2014, p. 3). PCOS has a high prevalence and incidences not only in western areas, but also in Eastern areas, specifically in Asia. Rehman, Salahuddin and Obaid-ur-Rehman (2005) estimated 20% women from the general population, and 10% women of reproductive age suffer from PCOS. A study conducted in UK reported that 20% 25% white women suffer from PCOS whereas the ratio was found to be much higher in South Asian women i.e. 52% (Karachi: Seminar told ovarian disease, 2010). A prospective study conducted in Greece, Spain and United States concluded that about 4% 8% of women were diagnosed with PCOS (Teed, Deeks Moran, 2010). In India, a cross-sectional study revealed that 51 out of 96 women have PCOS (Bhattacharya Jha, 2011). Furthermore, 20.7% women of reproductive age group are affected in Pakistan (Baqai, Khanam, Parveen, 2010). The morbidity rate of PCOS is expanding to a great momentum due to lack of awareness regarding preventive measures and inappropriate healthcare facilities. Its long t erm consequences do not limit to the reproductive axis; women with PCOS are at high risk for acquiring metabolic and cardiovascular illnesses (Avery Mayer, 2007). Inspite of its deleterious impacts PCOS has persisted for many years. It also remains a challenge for the clinician’s to diagnose and manage it. However, better understanding of the complexities of PCOS will ultimately lead to improved health outcomes and effective clinical care. This compelled us to converse over the epidemiology of PCOS. â€Å"PCOS has been identified as an area of clinical need and as a public health issue† (Hailes, 2011, p. 28). The exact etiology of PCOS is yet unknown, but several sufficient determinants are associated with its occurrence (Rehman et al., 2005). Insulin resistance is the major underlying factor. About 50-80% of the women with insulin resistance reported to have PCOS. Insulin plays both direct and indirect roles in the appearance of the disease. High levels of insulin work synergistically to the luteinizing hormone. Together they increase the androgen production of theca cells which lead to lipid abnormalities (Zacur, 2003). Moreover, elevated insulin level inhibits hepatic synthesis of sex hormone–binding globulin leading to increase amount of unbound or free testosterone (Ehrmann, 2005). Ahmed et al. (2008) highlighted genetics as an important risk factor for PCOS. Deregulation of the cytochrome P450c17 gene affects ovarian function which results in hyperandrogenism (Ahmed et al., 2008). Ehrmann (2005) reported that an abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (HPOA) is associated with PCOS. Rojas et al. (2014) concluded that an increase impulse frequency of HPOA raises the production of luteinizing hormone (LH). This in turn increases the synthesis of androgens, suggestive of PCOS (Ehrmann, 2005). Other factors include altered steroid metabolism that is dysregulation of 11b-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (Ahmed et al. 2008). In a retrospective study, women on antiepileptic drugs reported menstrual irregularities. Hence a positive relation between antiepileptic drugs and PCOS was found (Zacur, H., 2005; American Pregnancy Association, 2014). Vitamin D deficiency may place a woman to develop PCOS (Thys-Jacobs, Donovan, Papadopoulos, Sarrel, Bilezikian, 1999). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) decreases if women have higher body mass index (BMI), fat and insulin resistance. Hence, vitamin D deficiency alters intracellular calcium, which results in ovarian dysfunction (Khan et al., 2014). Untreated PCOS have various ramifications, including reproductive, metabolic, cardiovascular and psychological alterations. According to Legro et al. (2013), endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer may occur due to deficiency of progesterone. Moreover, women with PCOS are prone to develop Diabetes Mellitus (DM) type II in later life. A case control study revealed that 7.5% of women end up with DM type II (Legro, Kunselman, Dodson, Dunaif, 1999). In addition, PCOS can affect circulatory system in an indirect way as women develop dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. Anxiety and depression are the most common psychological issues reported by women with PCOS (Way, 2013). Lifestyle modification should be adopted by women suffering from PCOS. These amendments include weight control, stress management and dietary modification. A small amount of weight loss as little as 5% can help a woman to regulate the menstrual cycle and ovulation. Weight control can be beneficial for a woman to sustain mental well-being, and enables her to partially culminate the risk of cardiac and metabolic disorders (Boyle Teede, 2012). Moreover, dietary management includes the consumption of low glycemic index, high fiber and low fat diet to reduce the associated symptoms of PCOS. No ideal pharmacological treatment has yet been found that completely treats PCOS. However, symptomatic treatment is usually preferred. Low dose of oral contraceptive pill, cyclic progestin and metformin are used as first line treatment for PCOS. These drugs help in treating ovarian dysfunction, menstrual irregularities and hyperandrogenism (Garad, Teede, Moran, 2011). Elter and colleagues concluded from their clinical trial that OCP in combination with metformin is more effective in suppressing the androgen level as compared to OCP alone (Ahmed, Qureshi, Anjum, Akhtar, Anhalt, 2008). In presence of hirsutism spironolactone (200mg/d) is commonly prescribed (Guzick, 2004). Clomiphene citrate is recommended to induce fertility in women with PCOS. It triggers FSH secretion and mature ovarian follicle. Herbal therapies are also used to cure PCOS which includes liquorice, kasip fatimah, spearmint tea, etc. All three herbs have anti-androgenic properties. In Turkey, RCT concluded that wo men who receive spearmint tea have decreased levels of free testosterone (Goswami, Khale, Ogale, 2012). Recommendation and future research PCOS is endemic in Pakistan, particularly in the reproductive women. To reduce the incidence rate following recommendation can be helpful. At an individual level, it is significant to provide psychological support to the women suffering from PCOS. This will enhance her self-confidence and enable her to cope effectively. Moreover, counseling services should be readily available for newly diagnosed women. These services should emphasize on weight management via diet and exercise. Proper instructions regarding drug dosage, side effects and the importance of compliance is crucial. The physical changes in the women with PCOS not only impact her well-being, but her family is equally affected. Therefore, family concerns should be addressed. Further, regular follow up should be stressed. It is estimated that 70% of women with PCOS remain undiagnosed in the community due to lack of awareness (March et al., 2010). Therefore, several screening programs should be organized to assess women’s physical, metabolic, and reproductive health. These programs help women to identify any alterations in their bodily functions. Further, it helps health care workers to plan effective need based interventions for them. Community health centers should arrange weekly monitoring of blood pressure, weight and BMI. Health institutions should initiate yearly screening programs for lipid profile, glucose levels (Boyle et al., 2012) and Vitamin D levels. Various mediums can be used to increase awareness in the population. Women should be educated to self-monitor the symptoms of PCOS. This could be achieved through the distribution of pamphlets, brochures, and flyers at institutional level. Similarly, at national level mass media like television shows and commercials, plays an important role. Awareness is an essential tool to save future daughters, wives and mothers from PCOS. Government in affiliation with health and education sectors should make policies to initiate awareness among school going girls, regarding menstrual irregularities and warning signs of PCOS. Also, the government should introduce free health services in district and tehsil hospitals to maintain sexual health of women (Beydoun et al., 2009). In collaboration with non-governmental organizations awareness sessions and support groups should be planned for high risk and previously diagnosed women to prevent them from complications. More parks and walking tracks should be made, and specific hours should be allocated for women. PCOS remains a debating issue for researchers as its causes and outcomes are emerging day by day. Matzke (2011) suggested that large sample studies in non-randomized clinical trials should be conducted. This would increase validity, reliability and applicability of the researches. Longitudinal studies should be conducted, and an individual should be followed for more than 5 years exactly after the diagnosis. The purpose of long term monitoring is to evaluate the significant changes that occur due to PCOS (Matzke, 2011). There is a need to modify the name of PCOS as this term only focuses on cyst and ovaries. Therefore, a name that defines its intricacy and reflects its characteristics in metabolic, hypothalamus, pituitary, ovarian, and adrenal interactions should be suggested (National Institute of Health, 2012). A few studies indicate that fertility drug such as clomiphene citrate may increase the risk of ovarian cyst if taken for a long period (American Pregnancy Association, 2014) . In this regard, further experimental researches should be performed to evaluate the evidence of PCOS in such women. A Chinese medicine cryptotanshinone is known for its significant effect in endocrine and metabolic disorders. However, this medicine is only tested on rats and showed a significant decrease in the symptoms of PCOS (Yu et al., 2014). Therefore, clinical trials of this drug are suggested. Ayurveda is a traditionally used treatment regimen. An experimental uncontrolled study was done to investigate the effectiveness of samprapti kriya and other herbs for curing sub-fertility in PCOS. Results showed that 85% of the women get cured and75% were able to conceive (Siriwardene, Karunathilaka, Kodituwakku, Karunarathne, 2010). About 70% of Pakistani people prefer alternative therapies over conventional medicines (Kokab Ahmad, 2011). Therefore, further research is required to validate the effectiveness of ayurveda treatment. In conclusion, PCOS have emerged as a devastating endocrine disorder among  women worldwide. The chief cause is unknown yet. This syndrome displays a variety of reproductive, metabolic, cardiovascular and psychological features. Management primarily focuses on lifestyle modification along with certain pharmacological medications for presenting symptoms. To eradicate this disorder, efforts are required at individual, community, institution and governmental level. Working on future research needs would help us to achieve better outcomes in upcoming years.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Russel Ward, The Australian Legend - Book Review Essay -- essays resea

When writing the "big picture" histories, historians often overlook or exaggerate certain aspects of Australian history to make their point. Discuss with reference to one the recommended texts. The book "The Australian Legend", written by Russell Ward and published in 1958 speaks mainly of "Australian Identity". It looks at nationalism and what has formed our self-image. There are many aspects that are left overlooked however, as the Authour makes his assumptions. Significant parts of society are neglected consideration, these include those that weren't from the bush, non-British immigrants, the Aboriginal people and women. Also the use of romanticised and exaggerated evidence causes an imbalance in his conclusions. Ward's main reason for writing "The Australian Legend" was to portray the typical Australian's perception of himself. He admitted that the book was not intended to be a history of Australia, and it wasn't. What the narrative does do however, is trace and explore the source of what he referred to as the "national mystique". Ward bases his work on the opinion that the 'Australian spirit' is somehow intimately connected with the bush and that it derives rather from the common folk than from the more respectable sections of society. He treats this assumption methodically, using literary and historical evidence. The majority of the evidence, are extracts taken from the Sydney Bulletin, a paper edited by J.F Archibald. Writers included "the three greatest 'nationalist' writers of the 'nineties", as Ward called them. They were Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson, and Joseph Furphy. Ward believed that their works were hard fact - a reflection of the emergence of a dist inctively Australian way of life in the outback. This evidence however is rather selective. It appears that Ward has only chosen to include the works that support his version of the 'Australian identity', intentionally leaving out works by the aforementioned writers that gave reference to anyone not fitting his description of 'typical', ie. women, foreigners, aboriginals and city-dwellers. The Australian bush legend, Ward believed, came to its climax in the 1880s. He mentions that it was during this time that the majority of the population were native-born, white males who enjoyed the works of writers such as Paterson and Lawson. It w... ... Although partially true in its time, the Australian bush legend fades more and more as time progresses. The Australian identity of the 1890s was not the same as it was in the 1950s, nor do we have the same self-image today, as portrayed in 'The Australian Legend'. Recent statistics show that we work longer hours and drink far less then we used to. Many more Australians go to the beach than to the bush and despite the iconic male bushman, for most men and women in Australia the beach is far more central to our identity and lives, as the majority of the population lives closer to our coastal shores. 'The Australian Legend', in itself is an acurate portrayal and recount of one part of society, from a specific era, ie. the Australian bushman of the 1890s. Its exaggerations, however, such as the romanticism of the bush ethos by Australian writers, the unbalanced use of evidence, and the neglect to acknowledge the contribution to our national identity from certain sections of society, ie. aboriginal people, city-dwellers, women, and non-British immigrants, render this book to be flawed. For these reasons, it cannot be regarded as a complete and balanced account of Australian history.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Individualism and Collectivism Culture Theories Essay -- Culture

Individualism and Collectivism are two accepted theories that are commonly used when dealing with one’s culture and political views. According to Kemmelmeier, H. M. and Coon, Individualism and Collectivism concepts has been used to â€Å"depict, clarify, and envision divergence in people’s opinion, behavior, principles, attribution, self perception, socialization, and communication.† Nonetheless, individualism and collectivism has shared some mutual views as well as incongruous stances on humanity, the disposition of human beings, the affiliation of society and the characteristics of people in the individualistic culture. Individualism and Collectivism have shared common goals, nevertheless they agrees on what should be achieve, but their opinion differ in how we should attain what needs to be achieved. Many philosophers has pinpointed a difference in these two theories explaining that â€Å"societies can be contrasted along an individualistic-collectivistic a xis, with those toward the individualistic end emphasizing the â€Å"I† and those toward the other end emphasizing the â€Å"we† in thinking about, evaluating, and enacting communicative conducting.† Individualism has been associated with the I- identity and collectivism being associated with the We- identity. In using these pronouns as identification it speaks volume as what each theory is about. The individualism or the I-identity has been categorize as persons that place emphasis on themselves or their immediate family, it has been evident that certain countries has put this identity into practice such as The United States of America, Australia, France, and Canada. Individualist centralize their lifestyles surrounds self actualization and individual achievement; they believe in equality bu... ...fstede, G. (2009, June). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 17, Chapter 14).  ©International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. Donal Carbaugh, Intercultural Theory [on-line] Available from; Internet. Lustig, Myron and Jolene Koester. 1998. Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3rd Ed.). (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30. Coon, H.M. & Kemmelmeier M. (2001) Cultural orientation in the United States. (re) examining differences among ethnic groups. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology 32, 348-364 Stella Ting-Toomey. (2005). The matrix of Face: An Updated Face-Negotiation Theory,† in William Gudykunst, Ed., Theorizing about intercultural communication. Sage Publications. 71-92.

Participants in the study Essay

Of the 40 participants in the study, 26 delivered the maximum shocks while 14 stopped before reaching the highest levels. It is important to note that many of the subjects became extremely agitated, distraught and angry at the experimenter. Yet they continued to follow orders all the way to the end. So 65% of the participants in Milgram’s study delivered the maximum shocks. There were also questions asked regarding the ethics of the study, if we compare it to the British Psychology Society’s summary of ethics guidelines (1990) for the conduct of psychological experiments. General Distress – Distress to participants must be avoided but does not seem to be the case in this research with participants concerned they are harming the learner. Informed Consent – this must be gained with an explanation of the research where ever possible. In this study to the give the participant a full explanation would not have had the results that they got in the first place. They would have caused questions regarding the validity of the research. This then leads us to:- Deception – They were not fully aware of what was going on or the aims and objectives of the research so therefore they were deceived. Debriefing – Milgram fully debriefed the participants and did this extensively and out of all of the participants that 84% were glad to have participated, while only 1% regretted their involvement. The right to withdraw – the participant does have this right but this was not really the case here as here when a participant wanted to stop the experiment, the experimenter probed the subject to continue, pressure was added to continue the study so as not to affect the data. Protection of Participants – now this is from both physical and psychological harm which was not the case in either component. This study would not be able to be completed today due to the ethical issues affecting this but as you saw in the results that it did prove that people would obey even after they believe it’s wrong. Now if we look at Zimbardo’s (1971) in his study â€Å"The Stanford Prison Experiment† he was looking to see people conforming to social roles according to what people believe about a given situation. So for example this was how the ‘prisoners’ would obey the ‘guards’ orders if they believed that they were in jail. The reason that this appealed to Zimbardo was he was a former class mate of Milgram and was interested in expanding on his research. Zimbardo set the experiment by first placing an advert in the paper asking for male students to participant in a prison life experiment. The students who applied there were 24 in total they were selected from larger group that had applied for the study because they had no psychological issues, medical condition and no criminal backgrounds. They were all agreed to be in for one to two weeks for the experiment. The experiment was due to last two weeks but this had to be stopped early due to what was happening to the participants. The guards became abusive and prisoners began to show signs of extreme anxiety and stress. Neither the prisoners nor the guards were advised on how to interact with the each other. The guards began to behave like real life guards but they were also aggressive towards the prisoners, and the prisoners became passive and depressed. Five of the prisoners began to experience such severe negative emotions, that they had to be released from the study early. According to Zimbardo and his colleagues, experiment shows the powerful role that a situation can play in human behaviour. Because the guards were placed in a position of power, they began to behave in ways they would not normally in their everyday lives or in other situations. The prisoners, placed in a situation where they had no real control, became passive and depressed. The experiment could like Milgram’s could not be repeated by researchers today because it fails to meet the standards established by numerous ethical codes which I am going to look at now, by comparing the experiment to the British Psychology Society’s summary of ethics guidelines (1990) for the conduct of psychological experiments. General Distress – this was caused to both the prisoners and the guards, as the prisoners were humiliated and the guards became more and more aggressive which was caused by them wanting to do what they were supposed to do. Informed Consent – This was again something that they were unable to do as this may have had an effect on the results of the experiment, the participants were aware of certain things like that they were part of a prison experiment but not the aims and objectives of the experiment. Deception – due to the fact they the participants were not fully aware of what was going on and what was expected or wanted means there is a certain level of deception in the experiment. Debriefing – Zimbardo did debrief all of the participants but there has been suggestions that this was not enough or a through as Milgram’s debriefing process. Right To Withdraw – Like during the Milgram experiment the participants did have the right to withdraw but when they asked or showed that they wanted to leave they were persuaded to stay. Eventually a few of the participants had to be allowed to leave early as they were beginning to show extreme stress. Protection of Participants – this was the biggest area that was had ethics question raised, the participants were under a lot of stress, they began to believe the things that were being said to them and how they were being spoken to, they began to lose their identity which again caused stress, many of the participants became emotional under this pressure and some even became aggressive. The guards were inflicting this on them but this was situational. The experiment came to an end early when another psychologist realised on how far this had gone. Even Zimbardo himself said that he began to believe that he was the prison warden not the lead psychologist. Despite the criticism that this study received it is still important in psychology and how a situation can influence behaviour. The study more recently was brought to light when there were questions being asked of soldier’s treatment of prisoners in Abu Ghraib, and many people and even Zimbardo himself suggested that this may have been the real world example of what he was trying to achieve through research. To conclude there are many things that influence behaviour in people, wither that be their own beliefs and opinions or other people being around them at the time, they way in which people work is very complex and the study although brilliant at the times with the break through that they made into the social side of psychology have raised questions over the ethical issues that are also something to be looked at. Today the studies would not have been able to take place and in some ways this is a shame as we would not may be have had the knowledge that we have now because of them. Yet if they had thought of other ways around to come up with the same type of results then this would have been better for all of the subjects concerned. I think the research that was done was invaluable and that psychologists will always believe this just the questions over the methods leave a small black cloud over something rather brilliant. References Books Cardwell, Clark, Meldrum, Wadeley. – Psychology A2 for AQA (Fourth Edition) – HarperColins. Gross, Richard – Psychology, the Science of Mind and Behaviour -Hodder and Stoughton Gross, Richard. , McIlveen, Rob. , Coolican, Hugh. , Clamp, Alan & Russell, Julia. – Psychology – a new introduction for A2 – Hodder and Stoughton. Websites

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Manifest Destiny Essay

The belief in Manifest Destiny, America’s right to expand westward, was popular among the Democratic Party, which paved the path for conflict in U.S. politics. In the 1840’s, Manifest Destiny was used as justification for the annexation of Texas, the war with Mexico, and to acquire portions of Oregon from the British. The debate over whether America really had a manifest destiny to expand all the way west or if it was used as an excuse to acquire more land led to debates in U.S. politics. Advocates of manifest destiny, mostly democratic, argued that the U.S., as a more advanced culture, had a God-given right to expand its borders. They believed the expansion would civilize the West and America’s democratic, cultural, and religious values would benefit the Native Americans. In addition, supporters would argue that the belief would strengthen the union, making it invulnerable. On the opposing side, consisting mostly of the Whig party, the God-given right to expand all the way westward at the price and rights of thousands of innocent natives was blasphemy. The Whig party was not manifest destinies only critic, abolitionist, fearful of slavery spreading, argued that the constitution did not give the country the right to gain new land and the country’s vital institutions would suffer as A merica was spread too thin. Look more:  essays on manifest destiny Texas’ sought to join America as a new state, after it gained independence from Mexico and had a revolution. The process of expansion in which newly democratic and free states would seek entry into the United States, rather than the U.S. extending its government over unwanting people was ideal. The Democratic Party was threatened to fall apart if Texas entered the Union, as it would become another slave state and this forced both Presidents Jackson and Van Buren to decline Texas’ plea. During the election of 1844, both Henry Clay of the Whig Party and Van Buren of the Democratic Party were against the annexation of Texas, this displeased the Democrats as they wanted to gain Texas so they dropped Van Buren in favor of James Polk, who was for adding Texas as another slave state. Polk cleverly tied Texas’ annexation into the Oregon dispute, the controversy over Oregon’s border. In 1846 the dispute was settled over the Oregon Treaty where the British relinquished its holding to the lower Colombia basin. This appeased expansionist in the north, who fought for Oregon and expansionist in the south, who focused primarily on Texas. After Polk’s election, he moved to occupy a free portion of Texas that was still claimed by Mexico. This sparked the Mexican-American War in 1846, were there were calls for â€Å"All Mexico†, mostly from Eastern Democrats, however Mexico’s annexation brought up much debate. If Mexico were to become a part of the United States it would mean millions of non-white Mexicans would become U.S. citizens, something Americans were not too keen on. The racist aspect of Manifest Destiny considers inferior Mexicans unqualified to become Americans whereas the mission aspect of Manifest Destiny dictates that Mexicans would become improved under American democracy. The â€Å"All Mexico† movement quickly abated with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 which granted Alta California and Nuevo Mà ©xico to the United States, both of which were sparsely populated with Mexicans. After the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, disagreements over the expansion of slavery made further annexation by conquest too divisive to be official government policy. The belief in Manifest Destiny in the 1840’s greatly influenced both U.S. politics and policy and is to blame or thank for Americas expansion from â€Å"sea to shining sea.†

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Computing and Programming with MATLAB Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Computing and Programming with MATLAB - Essay Example In these review we shall investigate two scenarios are, one of linear horizontal motion and that of linear vertical acceleration. In traveling through air, the beetle will experience upwards and gravitational force acting downwards. Therefore to estimate the final velocity of the beetle we need to incorporate the drag force due to air resistance and also the gravitational component of the velocity, for the beetle to fall one mile below until it touches the ground. Velocity of the Porsche is easy to determine by empirical and mathematical equations of linear motion. In solving for the freefall velocity of the beetle, we shall make use of the MATLAB high level programming language, which will assist us to compute and display the results. MATLAB programs work hand in hand with various softwares related to programming languages such as JAVA, C++, FORTRAN python, including other windows compatible applications. In these review we shall design for a MATLAB program to calculate the travel t ime and velocity of two vehicles one moving horizontally while the other moving vertically downwards to cover a distance of one mile (1609m) In order to achieve maximum retardation, we shall now cause the beetle to fall flat on the wheels exposing maximum area to air resistance; hence the drag force will be highest consequently reducing the velocity of fall. In order to launch this program starts up, we need to initially enter the time and distance for the Porsche to cover the one-mile stretch .we shall then allow MATLAB to calculate the velocity as a function of the two variables. We shall then calculate the drag force by use of the formulae available for both minimum and maximum conditions that is when the beetle falls nosedive or flat on to the wheels. It is now possible to calculate the mean velocity of free fall using drag force, mass of beetle, and gravitational acceleration given by application of

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Leadership Course Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Leadership Course - Assignment Example It should be noted that all these posts are about leadership. Patti Besuner notes that the leadership course reinforced ethical responsibilities especially in line with moral leadership (Cameron, 2012). It is a fact that leaders should be morally upright and responsible since they usually tend to be role models to numerous personalities in the society. Therefore, according to Besuner, â€Å"A leader must care about and demonstrate concern for employees if optimal organizational productivity is to be achieved†. It is worth noting that Besuner leadership knowledge was geared to reflect how an organization, employees, society, and a nation should relate (Brammer, Jackson, & Mattens, 2012). Notably, this concern is vital since each of these groups must be answerable to another for effective, efficient, and smooth coexistence. From this post, it is apparent the leader acknowledged the roles of effective leadership as being effective for the coexistence of human being within a socie tal setup. Jones’ first post concentrated on the understanding of different aspects of leadership. He notes that leadership has ever been described in different concepts that lead to different types of leadership. For instance, Susan D. DeVore’s to leadership skills in the healthcare industry and to the same effect she is the current premier healthcare alliance CEO and president. Jones noted that DeVore has effective leadership skills that include transformation, system thinking, and collaborative techniques.

Monday, October 7, 2019

Operation Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 2

Operation Management - Essay Example This achievement can be credited to the attribute and analysis of Etisalat's widespread network, that characterizes UAE as one of the developed countries in the world in terms of unified and the best quality mobile connection (Etisalat, 2013). Research question 1) What are the concepts of operations management at Etisalat? 2) What are the weak points of operations system in Etisalat? Mission and vision statement Vision This vision is a community where populaces' reach is not restrained by issues or detachment; a society where individuals will naturally keep in touch with friends and family; a society where companies of different extents can make contemporary sales without the confines of distance and transportation (Etisalat, 2013). Mission Etisalat task is to lengthen publics' influence (Etisalat, 2013). Etisalat is developing superior networks that will make people to advance, acquire, and develop. The company has been in the forefront in technological inventions, involving a netwo rk of 3.75 installed in Egypt. Furthermore, Etisalat owns popular stocks in Thuraya, a controlling supplier of cable telephony (Etisalat, 2013). How Etisalat delivers its products to the customer Etisalat employs workforces that are highly skilled and obtained from twenty different nations, mainly contribute to the achievement of the company. Using expertise in working modern and technically advanced apparatus, the workers conduct widespread testing measures at every production stage (Etisalat, 2013). Its products are presently marketed in over forty countries across the world. Approximately fifty five per cent of Escalate's sales are achieved out of the UAE marketplace, as Etisalat aims at penetrating new markets in Asia and Africa (Etisalat, 2013). Explain the competitive priorities of the company A business should be involved in satisfying its clients' needs for quick and reliable services at affordable cost, as well as assisting its own providers in increasing facilities they pr esent (Slack and Lewis, 2007).There are five crucial aims and they concern all kinds of procedures. These are cost, quality, flexibility, and speed (Slack and Lewis, 2007).The following are the competitive priorities of the company of Etisalat telephone; cost, quality, flexibility, and speed as presented in the following table (Etisalat, 2013). Table 1.1 Cost, quality, flexibility and speed Cost refers to the actual price of the commodity. It should be noted that low cost is generally attractive to clients, which can be realized by manufacturing commodities at lower prices. Quality refers to organizing things in the right manner by providing goods and services that are perfect, which in turn satisfies the customers. Flexibility refers to implementing things quickly for clients to receive their commodities or services. Speed refers to doing things fast, to reduce the time between the demand and the invention or service that provides the client speed benefit. Marketing strategies A st rategy refers to an enduring proposal to attain certain aims. Marketing strategy refers to a marketing proposal designed to attain selling objectives (Slack and Lewis, 2007). Etisalat aims at producing the best quality telephone that cannot be found in any other company in UAE (Etisalat, 2013). Operation strategies This is the total outline of suggestions

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Leadership roles and responsibilites Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Leadership roles and responsibilites - Essay Example It has been viewed in Ofsted report that additional funding is accessible for the college in order to deliver well-equipped preparation courses to its learners throughout the globe. The additional funding, curriculum design and the offers which formulate by the college ultimately pose significant impact upon teaching and learning of the students by a greater extent. The college seeks to deliver more standard preparation courses by investing substantial amount in human capital for attracting as well as increasing its students level. In order to build skills within the team, the college introduces online training courses and establishes curriculum sessions as training modes for its teaching staffs (Ealing, Hammersmith & West London College, 2012). 9 References 10 Part 1 Organizational Context The person possessed 12 years of knowledge or experience as a tutor, teacher and manager in the field of education. The tutor within the educational context performed certain effective leadership qualities such as development manager, course team leader, program manager and technical team leader. Moreover, the tutor also provided active support in different areas which include classroom management, resource planning and quality control of the teaching courses. In relation to organisational context and Ofsted report, it has been viewed that Ealing Hammersmith and West London College aims to deliver a welcoming multicultural setting for its staffs, learner as well as visitors. In order to fulfil this aim, the college regularly performs ethical and legal responsibilities in order to eradicate any sort of discrimination or harassment and tends to promote better relations with every member linked with the college. The management section of the report affirmed that the college has implemented a kind of whole organisation approach which ensures that the learners of the college are able to perform their roles in a secured and inspiring environment. The Ofsted report also stated that as the college is the biggest provider of Further Education (FE) programs in the United Kingdom, the managerial approach of the college might reflect or play a chief contributory part upon the position of FE in the ever changing arena of funding (Ealing, Hammersmith & West London College, n.d.). A Brief Description of Three External and Three Internal Factors External- Changing policies of British Government and UK Border Agency (UKBA), rapid emergence of Information Technology (IT) and alterations in visa regulations for entry to international students. Internal- Interdepartmental competitiveness and lack of a unified delivery approach, standard hours of teaching and superior level of diversity in all classes. The aforementioned external as well as internal factors can impose significant impact upon the educational culture by a significant level. In this similar context, the external factor of changing policies of British Gov’ and UKBA can reduce the inflow of international students to the UK. The rapid emergence of IT might support the teachers to keep themselves with regular updates relating to current technologies. The alterations in visa regulations might affect the students coming to study in different colleges. The internal factor of interdepartmental competiveness along with lack of a unified delivery approach can negatively affect the organizational culture. Another internal factor of

Saturday, October 5, 2019

Does Dr Who tell us about science and technology or the Britain of its Essay

Does Dr Who tell us about science and technology or the Britain of its time Discuss - Essay Example Moreover, the era gave birth to television, which changed many aspects of the British society (Campbell). During these years of technological advancements many other elements were also becoming popular in Britain. People were fascinated with TV shows and greatly appreciated them. One of the most famous TV shows of all times is Doctor Who broadcasted on BBC, the first story of the series began on 23 November 1963 (Hyland). The caste of Doctor Who is fascinating and interesting, the science fiction elements in the series is its major attraction. the first episode of ‘Unearthly Child’, Doctor Who has been at the heart of its viewers (Britton). This paper aims to analyze whether Doctor Who tells us more about science and fiction or Britain of that time. Moreover, the paper will discuss some of the many technological elements from Doctor Who. Thesis Statement: Doctor Who is a science fiction show which was first presented in 1963. The show has presented many technological ele ments which are either inevitably possible or impossible. It has merged science fiction with science fantasy and has grasped what was going on in the British society of that particular time. Background The longest running British science fiction series, Doctor Who first began in 1963. The series is based on about 800 episodes that have been broadcasted periodically, and celebrates its 50 years anniversary. The theme of the series revolves around the science fiction and science fantasy, as some of the critics identify it as science fiction where as some believe it’s a science fiction. Doctor Who portrays some of the most amazing and fascinating adventures for humans. The series incorporates elements of science and technology, through illusions, imaginary narrative, through its unique representation of character and events, like Aliens, Cyber men, Sonic Screwdrivers etc. The entries story of the series focuses on the concept of time travel that allows the characters of the seri es to travel anywhere, even in the past and future. Doctor Who presents advanced science, technology and fiction in a very innovative manner, attracting several viewers around the world. Some believe that the ideas in the series are beyond human imagination, whereas some ideas seemed quite reasonable with the foreseeable science and are believed to be possible. Another chief element, which contributed towards the longevity of the show, is that it has effectively portrayed the fact of technological development and transformation of British society. Doctor Who certainly highlights science and fiction, which has tapped fear and curiosity among the viewers with the help of strong imaginary narratives and comments of the technological issues. The argument Doctor Who is undoubtedly a brilliant piece of science and fiction, but the need is to understand whether the show has actually tried to portray science fiction or science fantasy and whether it has reflected the Britain of that period. The science and technology that has been showed in Doctor Who is certainly beyond ones imagination (Campbell). Doctor Who is a science fiction series and viewers enjoy watching it as it is fun (Mckee). It gives the viewer an escape from their routine life and exhausted schedule so that they can fire up their imagination with some extra imaginary story. Some of the concepts in the serieshave become a part of reality whereas some are

Friday, October 4, 2019

Slope-Intercept Formula to Determine the Annual Increase Essay Example for Free

Slope-Intercept Formula to Determine the Annual Increase Essay Select an inventory management problem that applies to your work or personal life. Prepare a project proposal in which you: †¢Describe the organization, the inventory problem it faces, and the expected benefits that are motivating the organization to implement a solution. †¢Convert time series data collected in Week Two to seasonal indices. You may choose to use the University of Phoenix Material: Summer Historical Inventory Data or University of Phoenix Material: Winter Historical Inventory Data if the data you collected is insufficient. †¢Use seasonal indices to analyze the inventory data. oUse the slope-intercept formula to determine the annual increase in inventory. oProvide monthly seasonal indices for the given data. oIdentify the busy months of year. oIdentify the slow months of year. †¢Construct a histogram of the inventory data using Microsoft ® Excel ®. †¢Forecast the future inventory costs using time value of money concepts. University of Phoenix Summer Historical Inventory Data The University of Phoenix Summer Historical Inventory Data is the source for developing Team B’s inventory management proposal. Annual trend lines were plotted in Microsoft Excel  © to display the inventory amounts for each year. The trend line in this case is positive, which indicates that the likelihood of inventory levels in the subsequent years will continue to rise without considering any additional factors that may influence the business. Factors  to support the observation include economic instability from stock market volatility, a decline in consumer confidence, severe weather, and acts of terrorism. Table 1 shows the existing data and includes the fifth year projections. Figure 1 displays the trend line.

Thursday, October 3, 2019

Impact of Heredity and the Environment on Child Behaviour

Impact of Heredity and the Environment on Child Behaviour Rachel Price Choose a specific area of psychology such as addictive behaviour, intelligence or personality traits. Evaluate the impact of heredity and the environment on this area.† There are a number of different approaches to psychology and each of these makes different suggestions about what aspects of psychology are worth studying and what underlying models or images can be developed to understand what people are like (Gross, 2009). These models or images then provide alternative views of psychology which can be used to explain the nature of a persons development, the causes of abnormality and the preferred methods of study and treatment (Gross, 2009). This assignment will look at how some of these different approaches to psychology can help to discuss the impact of heredity and the environment can have on childrens behaviour. Firstly, this discussion will consider from some perspectives why heredity might be considered to have a stronger influence on children’s behaviour than environment. It will do this with reference to temperament theories, twin studies and perspectives that children who are born pre term can have behavioural difficulties. Secondl y, it will explore how environment might be considered to influence children’s behaviour. It will do this with reference to social constructivist and social integrationist studies such as Bandura’s theory of social learning and studies of attachment and parenting style. In conclusion it will identify the key points of this argument and summarise them. Different theoretical perspectives on psychology include biological and cognitive approaches, behaviourism, constructivism, and social constructivism (Davy, 2012). Each of these takes a different standpoint on the relative influence of heredity and environment on the psychology of individuals. Behaviourism is a theory of learning which is based on the idea that all behaviours are learnt through conditioning, where conditioning occurs through peoples interactions with the environment (Davey, 2012), In contrast, the Biological approach (often referred to as biopsychology  or physiological psychology) studies psychological functioning by examining biological processes such as brain function, bio chemistry and hereditary (Davy,2012), Constructivist and Social constructivist approaches dismissed the view of scientific psychology where individuals can be studied in an objective manner when on their own in isolation and instead they attempt to identify how interactions can help construct knowledge(Davy, 2012).Davy (2012) suggests that the behaviour of children has been researched by psychologists from all perspectives, but with different emphasise. One theoretical perspective that support the suggestion hereditary might be considered to have a stronger influence on child’s behaviour is temperament theories. Goldsmith et al (1987) research suggests that although there are numerous theories on childrens temperament and behaviour, the majority agree that temperament refers to early appearing individual differences in behavioural tendencies that have a childs nature. Soon after birth children show a variation in behavioural dimensions that are considered to be temperamental such as attention/persistence, sociability etc (Goldsmith et al, 1987). Temperament theories suggest that such differences have a biological or constitutional foundation to a childs behaviour (Saudino, 2005). Another approach that offers suggestions that genetics play a part in a child’ s behaviour is the nativist approach, which use twin’s studies to support this suggestion. Twin studies that use parent ratings (most frequently used measure of temperament in infancy and childhood) offer suggestions of evidence of the genetic influences on a childs behaviour and temperament (Saudino, 2005). Cyphers, Phillips, Fulkner and Mrazek (1990) research on the temperament of twins during the transition from infancy to early childhood, which analysed data in which one twins scored was predicted from that of its co-twin, which as a result showed direct results that genetics and heritability had on the twins temperament. The results of the research showed that the predictions of the co twin’s behaviour were found to be correct in eight out of the nine temperament scales that were used in the research and supports the biological approach and a link between a childs genetics and their behaviour (Cyphers, Phillips, Fulkner and Mrazek, 1990). Research that uses twin s tudies to offer evidence of the link with a childs genetics and their behaviour consistently find that MZ twins are more similar in behaviour than DZ twins across a wide variety of temperament dimensions including emotionality, activity, shyness, sociability, attention/persistence, approach, adaptability, distress, positive affect and negative affect (Saudino, 2005). Saudino and Chemys (2001) research into parental ratings of temperament in twins also found that MZ twins showed similar behavioural styles.Bhutta, Cleves, Casey, Cradock and Anand (2002) research suggests that children who were born preterm are at risk for reduced cognitive test scores and their immaturity at birth is directly proportional to the mean cognitive scores at school age. Preterm-born children also show an increased incidence of ADHD and other behaviours (Bhutta, Cleves, Casey, Cradock and Anand, 2002). Evidence to demonstrate the influence of the environment on behaviour is provided by research on attachment Bowlbys attachment theory These attachment representations influence children’s cognitions, feelings, and behaviour in subsequent relationships and interactional settings; having an overall effect on the style in which an individual relates to others (Bowlby, 1982).Greenberg, Speltz, Deklyen, Endriga,(1991) suggest that in proportion there is a widespread number of insecure attachment in children with early-onset conduct problems ( conduct disorder is a psychological discord that is diagnosed in childhood and presents itself through a persistent or repetitive pattern of behaviour in which the basic rights of others and a lack of behaviour that relates to the childrens development and social skills) Insecure-disorganised attachment is common in conduct-problem samples (Green, Stanley, Peters, 2007) and shows a robust link with antisocial behaviour (Fearon, Bakermans-Kra nenburg,Van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, and Roisman, 2010). Disorganised attachment is marked by an absence of coherent strategies for attachment related resolution of distress, and often results in chaotic and bizarre child behaviour (Main Solomon, 1986).Parenting can have a significant and well established impact on the early childhood socialization process which includes childrens peer behaviour (Belsky 1984). Parenting during early childhood has been shown to have a significant impact on a childs social development, such as social engagement, cooperation and social competence (Landry, Smith, Swank, Guttentag, 2008). Parenting that is negative , hostile and unsupportive can be damaging for childrens social outcomes, hostility and un supportiveness in the parent child relationship are suggested to be associated with less social competence and an increase in social aggression in early and middle childhood (Brannigan et al., 2002).This suggestion supports the social learning theory which suggests that children who experience hostile exchange with their parents learn maladaptive social responses and that children may as a result respond disruptively in peer situations based on prior negative experiences with their parents (Russell, Pettit and Mize,1998).Disruptive peer behaviour during early childhood can restrict the development of social ability needed to help children develop later relationships with peers (Crick et al, 2006).Banduras social learning theory (1977) suggest that childrens behaviour is learnt from the environment through a process of observational learning. Children observe the people around them and the way they behave, which was shown by Banduras Bobo doll experiment that investigates if social behaviours can be learnt from observation and copying behaviour. The experiment suggests that children observe and then encode behaviour (Bandura, 1961). Children raised in institutions are known to be at great risk for developmental delays and disorders, w hich include mental health disorders (MacLean, 2003). Bos et al research Bucharest Early Intervention Project(2011) into psychiatric outcomes in young children with a history of institutionalization also offer suggestions that the environment can effect childrens behaviour. Young children with a history of being in institutional care often show poor attention, hyperactivity, difficulty with regulating emotions, elevated levels of anxiety and increased rates of attachment disorders (Ellis, Fisher and Zaharie,2004) They are also at increased risk for a quasi-autism syndrome, a pattern of features similar to autism(Rutter et al , 2007). The results of the research showed that children in the institutionalized group demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotionally withdrawn reactive attachment disorder (RAD) than children in the community comparison sample. Institutionalized children also scored significantly higher than the community sample on indiscriminately social/disinhibite d RAD. The differences in signs of both types of RAD were large and statistically significant Traditional behaviour-genetic models that make suggestions about childrens behaviour do not discuss the comparisons of the effects of differing environments on individuals who vary on genetically influenced characteristics. For example, in twin and adoption studies the degree of biological relatedness between individuals and not specific markers of genetically linked characteristics in the two individuals, is the primary focus, whereas variations in environments are rarely researched ( Collins, Maccoby, Steinberg, Hetherington and Bornstein ,2000).Elam et al (2014) research on adoptive parent hostility and children’s peer behaviour problems looked at 361 sets of adoptive children, and included research on adoptive mothers and fathers and the childrens biological mothers. The research looked at the links of birth mother low behavioural motivation and toddler low social motivation, as well as adoptive parent child hostility and childrens disruptive peer behaviour. The research s howed that birth mother low behavioural motivation was linked to a toddler’s low social motivation as well as adoptive mother/father hostility and a link between adoptive mother/father hostility resulting in reports of disruptive behaviour. Knafo, Israel, and Ebstein’s (2011) research on the joint contribution of genetics and the parenting environment to children’s prosocial development (Prosocial behaviours are those intended to help other people Eisenberg et al., 2006). The results of the twin study suggested the importance of both the environment and genetics in explaining individual differences. More in depth Conclusion approx 200 Reference List Bandura, A., Ross, D., Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through the imitation of aggressive models.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582 Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83–96. Bhutta, A. T., Cleves, M. A., Casey, P. H., Cradock, M. M., Anand, K. J. S. (2002). Cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children who were born preterm: a meta-analysis. Jama, 288(6), 728-737. Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss. Vol. 1: Attachment (2nd edn). New York: Basic Books. Bos, K., Zeanah, C. H., Fox, N. A., Drury, S. S., McLaughlin, K. A., Nelson, C. A. (2011). Psychiatric outcomes in young children with a history of institutionalization.Harvard review of psychiatry,19(1), 15-24. Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E. E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E. M., Bornstein, M. H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: the case for nature and nurture.American Psychologist,55(2), 218. Crick, N. R., Ostrov, J. M., Burr, J. E., Cullerton-Sen, C., Jansen-Yeh, E., Ralston, P (2006). A longitudinal study of relational and physical aggression in preschool. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,27, 254 –268 Cyphers, L. H., Phillips, K., Fulker, D. W., Mrazek, D. A. (1990). Twin temperament during the transition from infancy to early childhood.Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry,29(3), 392-397. Davey, G, (2012). Complete Psychology. 2nd ed. London: Hodder Education. Elam, K. K., Harold, G. T., Neiderhiser, J. M., Reiss, D., Shaw, D. S., Natsuaki, M. N.,D,Gaysina, D.,Barrett Leve, L. D. (2014). Adoptive parent hostility and children’s peer behaviour problems: Examining the role of genetically informed child attributes on adoptive parent behaviour.Developmental psychology,50(5), 1543. Ellis, B.H., Fisher, P.A., Zaharie, S. Predictors of disruptive behavior, developmental delays, anxiety, and affective symptomatology among institutionally reared Romanian children.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004; 43:1283–1292. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Spinrad, T. (2006). Prosocial development. InN. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.) W. Damon R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personalitydevelopment (6th ed., pp. 646–718). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Fearon, R.M.P., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J., VanIJzendoorn, M.H., Lapsley, A., Roisman, G.I. (2010). The significance of insecure attachment and disorganization in the development of children’s externalizing behavior:A meta-analytic study. Child Development, 81, 435–456 Goldsmith, H.H.,Buss,A.H., Plomin, R.,Rothbart, M.K., Thomas, A.,Chess,S.,Hindle,R.A.,McCall,R.B., (1987). Roundtable: what is temperament? Four approaches.Child Development. 58 (1), pp.505-529 Green, J., Stanley, C., Peters, S. (2007). Disorganized attachment representation and atypical parenting in young school age children with externalizing disorder. Attachment and Human Development, 9, 207–222. Greenberg, M.T., Speltz, M.L., Deklyen, M., Endriga, M.C. (1991). Attachment security in preschoolers with and without externalizing behavior problems: A replication. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 413–430. Gross, R, (2009). Psychology The Science of Mind and Behaviour. 5th ed. London: Hodder Arnold add chapter Knafo, A., Israel, S., Ebstein, R. P. (2011). Heritability of childrens prosocial behaviour and differential susceptibility to parenting by variation in the dopamine receptor D4 gene.Development and psychopathology,23(01), 53-67. Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., Guttentag, C. (2008). A responsive parenting intervention: The optimal timing across early childhood for impacting maternal behaviours and child outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1335–1353. MacLean K. The impact of institutionalization on child development.Dev Psychopathol. 2003; 15:853–884. Main, M., Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of a new, insecure disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective development in infancy (pp. 95–124). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Russell, A., Pettit, G. S., Mize, J. (1998). Horizontal qualities in parent-child relationships: Parallels with and possible consequences for children’s peer relationships. Developmental Review, 18, 313–352. d Rutter, M., Kreppner, J., Croft, C., Murin, M., Colvert,E. ,Beckett,C., Castle,J.,Sonuga-Barke, E. Early adolescent outcomes of institutionally deprived and non-deprived. adoptees. III. Quasi-autism.J Child Psychol Psychiatry.2007; 48:1200–1207. Sakimura, J.N., Dang, M.T., Ballard, K.B., Hansen, R.L. Cognitive and temperament clusters in 3- to 5-year-old children with aggressive behaviour. J Sch Health. 2008; 78: 38-45 Saudino, K. J. (2005). Behavioral Genetics and Child Temperament.Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP,26(3), 214–223. Saudino, K. J., Cherny, S. S. (2001). Parent ratings of temperament in twins. In R. N. Emde J. K. Hewitt (Eds.)The transition from infancy to early childhood: Genetic and environmental influences in the MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study(pp.73–88). New York: Oxford University Press Thomas, A. Chess, S. (1977).Temperament and Development.New York, NY: Bruner/Mazel.